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Past Paper Appraising officer Original Solved MCQs FPSC Batch 1

2020.09.25 21:37 CSSMCQs Past Paper Appraising officer Original Solved MCQs FPSC Batch 1

Past Paper Appraising officer Original Solved MCQs FPSC Batch 1


Here, you will find Today FPSC Test Appraising and Valuation Officer Batch 1 Some Solved MCQs which was conducted by FPSC today on 25th Sept, 2020.

Please that these MCQs are shared by users therefore some incorrect information and not right answer can be anticipated.

Today's Valuation officer MCQs Batch-1:
7/7*7/14*7/21*7/28*7/35=? 1/120
Sum of odd numbers from 1 to 100=? 2500
a% of b=30 what is value of b? 3000/a
What is arithmetic mean of a,b if 1/c -1/b=1/a and ab=c? 1
What is harmonic mean if arithmetic mean and geometric mean are 3 and 5 respectively?
If Ali's salary is 25% more that Ahmad's salary then how more is Ali's salary than Ahmad?
Total number of teachers and number of female teachers are given.Find percentage of male teachers?
√x^2 +4 =? (x+2)(x-2) (x+2) (x+2)^2 None of these
Number of Makki Surahs in Qur'an=?86
Number of rukuh in Qur'an=?540
Torait revealed on? Moses
Bible revealed on? Jesus
Companion of Hazrat Muhammad SAW whose name is mentioned in Qur'an? Hazrat Zaid bin Harith
Who translated Holy Qur'an in Urdu for the first time?
At what age Hazrat Prophet SAW went to Syria with his uncle? 12 years
Qur'an means? To read more To praise one
What is the name of Imam Bukhari? Muhammad Bin Ismaeel
"Lion of Allah" is title of? Hazrat Ali Murtaza (R.A)
Who wrote first Wahi?
When Qasem Solemani was assassinated? 3 January 2020
When citizenship article amendment made in Kashmir?
Capital of Austria? Vienna
China India dispute occurred at which lake? Ladakh lake
Who declared WHO as puppet of China? Trump
What are the post effects of Coronavirus mentioned by Choamsky? Nuclear war and global warming
First missile of PAKISTAN? Hatf
PIDC stands for? Pakistan Industrial development corporation
Where Imran Khan gave an historic speech in 74th session? UN
In how much time NATO and US will withdraw troops from Afghanistan? 14 months
When constitution of 1973 became effective?14 August 1973
Jamal khashogi was a journalist of ? The Washington Post
Function of Islamic revolutionary guard corps is to defend? Iran Revolution
Which Mughal empire included Kashmir in Mughal empire? Akbar
Bastile day in France is celebrated in memory of?
Which gurduwara was attacked in Afghanistan? Kabul gurduwara
Whose death in Herminder grieved Sikhs? Yadavindra singh
Role of national assembly in interim period?
Central legislative body of Pakistan
When the current PM of Spain was elected? 2018
Which African American was killed in America in 2019?George Floyd
Moenjo daro is located in which district?Larkana district
First deputy destrict judge in UK who wear headscarf?Raffia Arshad
News reporters are not allowed in Kashmir since date?
When UK left European Union?
WHO said that "Coronavirus can reactivate and a second wave can come." Who gave this statement?Dr. Mike Ryan
How to save word file with new name? Go to file then save as
Extension for word document? .doc
What is inavlid data type in excel? Time
Sybmol used to start formula in excel? =
How to write range if formula span multiple rows? E1:E12
Which is not provided in MS office package? Teams
Shortcut key to open fonts?
Shortcut key for find and replace?
Shortcut key to insert hyperlink?
Which text graphics is provided by default in word? WordArt
Ctrl+A is used in MS word for? To select all the text in a document
Minimum number of rows and columns in MS Word? 1 and 1
Spreadsheet can be opened in? Excel

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Past Paper Appraising officer Original Solved MCQs FPSC Batch 2

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2020.09.19 16:15 Snoo38044 Where in the bible, is the scripture that says, people will be resurrected ‘DURING’ the 1000 year reign?

Scriptures are only references. Not meant to be read in their entirety. 😂
When you actually read the bible, you find that all the teachings of the Great Tribulation, Armageddon, 1000 year reign, the resurrection, Satan and the judgment of peoples doesn’t match what the Watchtower teaches.
For example, nowhere in the bible does it say that people would be resurrected in an orderly fashion going backwards from the most recent death today, all the way back to Abel.
And nowhere in the bible does it say that Moses, David, Jeremiah, Daniel would be resurrected early, and given a crash course to bring them up to date on Jehovah’s purpose regarding Jesus, the ransom, and so on.
In fact, if you just take a few minutes and read the bible is says in order,---- that;
Only a great crowd will survive the Great tribulation.
(Revelation 7:14, 15) . . .“These are the ones that come out of the great tribulation, and they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. 15 That is why they are before the throne of God; and they are rendering him sacred service day and night in his temple;. . .
After that;
Armageddon comes where ONLY the Kings of the earth fight with Jesus. Nothing is said about destroying other people like gays, apostates, or those not JWs
(Revelation 19:19) . . .And I saw the wild beast and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered together to wage the war with the one seated on the horse and with his army. . .
After that;
Then Satan is locked up for 1000 years.
(Revelation 20:1-3) . . .And I saw an angel coming down out of heaven with the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hand. 2 And he seized the dragon, the original serpent, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years. 3 And he hurled him into the abyss and shut [it] and sealed [it] over him, that he might not mislead the nations anymore until the thousand years were ended. After these things he must be let loose for a little while.
After that;
Then 1000 years will begin with only the anointed ruling; BUT NO RESURRECTION TAKES PLACE-- “ON EARTH’--DURING THE 1000 YEARS.
Only the anointed are resurrected to rule as kings
(Revelation 20:4) . . .And I saw thrones, and there were those who sat down on them, and power of judging was given them. Yes, I saw the souls of those executed with the ax for the witness they bore to Jesus and for speaking about God, and those who had worshiped neither the wild beast nor its image and who had not received the mark upon their forehead and upon their hand. And they came to life and ruled as kings with the Christ for a thousand years.
After that;
Then Satan will be let lose and misleads many,
(Many would include ONLY; Those of the Great Crowd who survived the Great tribulation and any born during the 1000 years)
BECAUSE THE RESURRECTION DOESN'T TAKE PLACE UNTIL AFTER THE 1000 YEARS and AFTER SATAN IS THROWN INTO THE LAKE OF FIRE.
(Revelation 20:7, 8) . . .Now as soon as the thousand years have been ended, Satan will be let loose out of his prison, and he will go out to mislead those nations in the four corners of the earth. . .
After that;l
Then Satan and all those of the Great Crowd who were mislead will be thrown into the lake of fire.
(Revelation 20:7-10) . . .Now as soon as the thousand years have been ended, Satan will be let loose out of his prison, 8 and he will go out to mislead those nations in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Ma′gog, to gather them together for the war. The number of these is as the sand of the sea. 9 And they advanced over the breadth of the earth and encircled the camp of the holy ones and the beloved city. But fire came down out of heaven and devoured them. 10 And the Devil who was misleading them was hurled into the lake of fire and sulphur, where both the wild beast and the false prophet [already were]; and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.
After Satan is gone as well as those of the Great Crowd who were influenced by Satan
Then the resurrection and judgement of life or death takes place
(Revelation 20:11-13) . . .And I saw a great white throne and the one seated on it. From before him the earth and the heaven fled away, and no place was found for them. 12 And I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne, and scrolls were opened. But another scroll was opened; it is the scroll of life. And the dead were judged out of those things written in the scrolls according to their deeds. 13 And the sea gave up those dead in it, and death and Ha′des gave up those dead in them, and they were judged individually according to their deeds.
Then after all that-----And we're back to PARADISE💪💪💪
(Revelation 21:1-4) . . .And I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the former heaven and the former earth had passed away, and the sea is no more. ....... With that I heard a loud voice from the throne say: “Look! The tent of God is with mankind, and he will reside with them, and they will be his peoples. And God himself will be with them. 4 And he will wipe out every tear from their eyes, and death will be no more, neither will mourning nor outcry nor pain be anymore. The former things have passed away.”
So according to the bible, Everyone except the Kings of the earth, survive Armageddon----including gays, apostates, and everyone on the planet that is not a Jehovah Witness.
Nothing is taught that 8 billion people will be put to death
All the pictures of people screaming, children being swallowed up by earthquakes, Jesus shooting arrows at SWAT, are just made up.
Jws should read the bible instead of Watchtower Publications.
submitted by Snoo38044 to exjw [link] [comments]


2020.09.14 21:17 StevenStevens43 Rothechtaid moses family (2)

Rothechtaid moses family (2)
Red shield:
This article is in response to another article i wrote, which i will link to below.
In my last article, i received a reply from someone.
Rothechtaid family
  • FetterJoint wrote
I believe you are, at least, mistaken with the origin of the name „Rothschild“. It does not come from the word „child“, but rather the German „Schild“ meaning „shield“. Rothschild means „red schield“.
Link for photo
Flag of Alba
Rothenschild:
So. Is FetterJoint correct?
Yes, of course he is.
Overview
The name is derived from the German zum rothen Schild (with the old spelling "th"), meaning "at the red shield", in reference to the house where the family lived for many generations (in those days houses were designated not by numbers but by signs displaying different symbols or colours). A red shield can still be seen at the centre of the Rothschild coat of arms.
Link for photo
Rothschild family crest
Red:
Now, let us take on board the information received from FetterJoint, and work out whether or not this strengthens my position, or weakens it.
So let us look at the meanings of "Roth", once again.
Roth obviously has strong connections with the word "red".
I will also only point out the definitions which best support my position.
I will however produce a link, which links directly to the list of definitions, and you can decide yourself if i left anything out which would "contradict" my argument.
But 3, 4, 5 were left out due to irrelevance.
Roth surname)
  1. The spilling of blood from the warrior class of ancient Germanic soldiers;
  2. Ethnic name for an Anglo-Saxon, derived from rot (meaning "red" before the 7th century), referencing red-haired people;
  3. Derivative from roe in the ancient Danish language to signify (of) a king;
7, Of the red colour of clay, as in pottery (German).
Ebraucus:
Now, i aim to attempt to find out where the orgins of Rothechtaids becoming "Red shields", might come from.
And i will begin with a supposed king of Albany (Scotland) from approximately 1060 BC to 1010 BC, named Ebraucus.
Now, according to British legends, Ebraucus founded the village of Eboracum, which later evolved in to the City of York.
I will also just add. It is in fact likely not true that Scotland did not get conquered by the Romans.
As i have revealed in prior threads, there is a natural border between Northern Britain and Southern britain running all the way between the river Humber, just below York, and the Lake district, in the form of rivers and streams that flow out in to the Irish sea.
In British legends, this marked the border between Loegria (England) and Albany (Scotland).
So when the Romans conquered Eboracum, that was likely Albion/Caledionia, and they pushed the border up to Hadrians wall.
Ebraucus
He founded two settlements: Kaerebrauc, the City of Ebraucus (Eboracum), north of the Humber (this later became York,
Link for photo
Constantine the Great in Eboracum
Eboracum:
So, is it true that York derived it's name from Eboracum?
Well, yes. The etymological roots of the word York, is Eboracum.
Origin of the name
The word York (Old Norse: Jórvík) is derived from the Brittonic name Eburākon (Latinised) variously as Eboracum, Eburacum or Eburaci),
Link for photo
Tower of Eboracum
Alclud:
Another sensational claim is that Ebraucus also founded the old Capital of Albany, Alclud, in Strathclyde.
Ebraucus
and Alclud in Albany (now part of Dunbarton, capital of Strathclyde).
Breton:
So what evidence is there to suggest this is true?
Well, in actual fact, contemporary historians and scholars, agree, that the Brythonic language evolved out of the old Albannach speaking kingdom of Alclud, when Alclud became "Breton", the capital of Strathclyde, not long after the Romans left.
Strathclyde
Strathclyde (lit. "Strath of the River Clyde"), originally Cumbric: Ystrad Clud or Alclud (and Strath-Clota in Anglo-Saxon), was one of the early medieval kingdoms of the Britons) in what the Welsh call Hen Ogledd ("the Old North"), the Brythonic-speaking parts of what is now southern Scotland and northern England. The kingdom developed during the post-Roman period. It is also known as Alt Clut, a Brittonic term for Dumbarton Castle,[1]
Link for photo
Strathclyde
Town of Maidens:
Apparently, Ebraucus also built the town of Maidens, which was supposed to be an ancient settlement on the castle rock, which is the location of todays Edinburgh castle.
Ebraucus
According to Polydore Vergil he "builded the town of Maidens, now called Edinburgh Castle,
Link for photo
Edinburgh castle
Maidens castle:
So what is the truth in this?
Well, in actual fact, the Edinburgh castle was in fact referred to as the Maidens castle, right up until the 16th Century.
Earliest habitation
The name "Maidens' Castle" (Latin: Castra or Castellum Puellarum) occurs frequently up until the 16th century.[15] It appears in charters of David I (r. 1124–1153) and his successors,[16] although the reason for it is not known. William Camden's survey of Britain, Britannia (1607), records that "the Britans called [it] Castle Myned Agned [winged rock], the Scots, the Maidens Castle
Link for photo
LLUEDDINIAWN Castle
Battle against Gauls:
Now, Ebraucus also fought a battle against Gauls, and slaughtered them, apparently.
Ebraucus
Following the death of his father, Mempricius, he became king and reigned 39 years. According to Geoffrey he was admired, tall, and remarkably strong. He was the first to wage war on the Gauls since the time of Brutus. By pillaging the cities and shores and slaughtering many men
King Maddan:
Now, Embraucus grandfather, just so happened to be King Maddan.
So, more likely Maddans town.
It has already been revealed in a quote earlier, that Embraucus is the son of Mempricius.
Mempricius
Mempricius (Welsh: Membyr) was a legendary king of the Britons), as recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He was the son of King Maddan and brother of Malin.
Enna Airdech:
Now, i understand this all might be hard to follow, and might be getting confusing, but you might just have to read things over carefully.
Enna Airgdech was an Irish high king that avenged the death of his father, by killing Oengus Olmucaid.
Enna Airgdech
Énna Airgdech ("rich in silver",[1] also spelled Airgthech, Airgtheach), son of Eochu Mumu, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He came to power after killing the previous incumbent and his father's killer, Óengus Olmucaid,
Oengus Olmucaid:
Oengus Olmucaid, was an Irish high king who was credited with conquering the whole of Albany, aswell as the Orkneys, and probably Germanic parts of Scandinavia (Schleswig)
Oengus Olmucaid
Óengus Olmucaid (or Aengus Olmucada), son of Fíachu Labrainne, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. During the reign of his father, he conquered Scotland. He came to power by killing the incumbent High King, Eochu Mumu, who had killed his father twenty-one years earlier. He fought many battles against the Cruithne), the Fir Bolg, the Fomorians and other peoples of Ireland, the people of the Orkney islands, and even the Longobardi. He was killed by Enna Airgdech, son of Eochu Mumu,
Rothechtaid mac Main 1005 BC until 980 BC:
Now, Rothechtaid mac Main also reigned as high king of Ireland from 1005 BC until 980 BC.
He also killed the person which killed his grand-father, and king of Albany, Oengus Olmucaid.
This would effectively make Rothechtaid mac Main, the King of Albany, and most likely related to Ebracus through Maddan and malin.
Or, Maen, depending upon dialect/
Rothechtaid mac Main
Rothechtaid, son of Maen, son of Óengus Olmucaid, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He came to power by killing the previous incumbent, his grandfather's killer Énna Airgdech, in the battle of Raigne. He ruled for twenty-two years. The Lebor Gabála Érenn gives two versions of his death. In one version, he was killed in single combat in Cruachan by Sétna Airt, who fought to protect his son Fíachu Fínscothach. In the other version, he died of his wounds in Tara.[1] The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 1005–980 BC,[2]
Silver shields;
In order to win the throne back, Rothechtaid mac Main defeated an army (likely lombards) which used silver shields.
Enna Airgdech
Énna Airgdech ("rich in silver",[1] also spelled Airgthech, Airgtheach), son of Eochu Mumu, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He came to power after killing the previous incumbent and his father's killer, Óengus Olmucaid, in the battle of Carman. He is said to have made silver shields for his nobles in Argatros. He reigned for twenty-seven or twenty-eight years, before being killed by Óengus' grandson Rothechtaid mac Main in the battle of Raigne.[2]
Red hair:
Now that i have hopefully established that Rothechtaid mac Main and Ebraucus are likely the same person. I will now attempt to highlight why "Roth" appears to be synonymous with the word "Red".
Red hair is pretty much synonymous with people from North west europe, and you do not get any farther North West europe, than Ireland and Scotland.
Red hair
Red hair (or ginger hair) occurs naturally in one to two percent of the human population, appearing with greater frequency (two to six percent) among people of Northern or Northwestern European ancestry and lesser frequency in other populations. It is most common in individuals homozygous for a recessive allele) on chromosome 16 that produces an altered version of the MC1R protein.[1]
Link for photo
Red haired warriors chasing the Greeks, in Greece, 340 BC
Queen Tati:
Now, this surprisingly brings me to just before the time of the Hyksos, which likely began when a foreign king named Sheshi, married an Ethiopian queen named Tati, in order to forge a Canaante union with Upper egypt and Canaan, much to the displeasure of the native lower Egyptians, that placed Teti on the execration texts, which were pretty much the Egyptian equivalent of todays terrorist register, minus the voodoo dolls.
Queen Tati)
Tati's seals have been found at Leontopolis) and Abydos. Since her scarabs are of two designs, this has allowed them to be dated to the reign of Sheshi, since the designs correspond to a change that took place during his reign, as evidenced by his hundreds of surviving seals. The most likely explanation for her prominence is that she was the wife of Sheshi.[1]#cite_note-FOOTNOTERyholt199753-1)
The Egyptologist Kim Ryholt suggested that Tati's marriage was probably part of a dynastic alliance between Sheshi and the Kushite rulers of Kerma. This is suggested by the strong relations the Fourteenth Dynasty is known to have had with Kerma, as well as by the names of Tati and her presumed son.[3]#cite_note-FOOTNOTERyholt1997114%E2%80%9315-3) The name Tati is attested in earlier execration texts naming a Kushite queen (spouse of Awaw) as one of the enemies of the pharaoh.
Link for photo#/media/File:Scarab_BM20824_Newberry.png)
Tati painting
Sheshi:
So, it appears, this foreigner got in to the Nile delta, to establish a dynasty known as the Hyksos, by marrying an Ethiopian princess, regarded as a terrorist by Lower egyptians.
Sheshi
Ryholt proposed that Sheshi allied his kingdom with the Kushites in Nubia via a dynastic marriage with the Nubian princess Tati). Ryholt further posits that the son of Sheshi and Tati was Nehesy, whose name means "The Nubian", whom he believes succeeded Sheshi to the throne as the pharaoh Nehesy Aasehre.
Link for photo.jpg)
Sheshi cartouche
Ahmose I:
Of course, as has already been established in previous articles, the descendants of the Sheshi & Tati marraige, would later turn against their foreign roots, and ally themselves only with their Kushite roots, and would expel the foreigners during an uprising in 1549 BC.
Ahmose I
During his reign, Ahmose completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos from the Nile Delta, restored Theban rule over the whole of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan.[8]
Link for photo
Ahmose I
Amschel Moses Rothschild:
Now, this brings me to the Roth uprising to internation prominence beginning with Amschel Moses Rothschild.
Overview
The family's ascent to international prominence began in 1744, with the birth of Mayer Amschel Rothschild in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. He was the son of Amschel Moses Rothschild (born circa 1710)
Thutmosis IV:
Now, it just so happens that one of Ahmose I's descendants, was part of a Moses dynasty, which waged war, invaded, and conquered, Mesopotamian lands, which included war upon Aryan kings, and the result was the Indo-Aryan Hittite empire being sent from Southern Asia, and Northern europe, to fight the out of control native egyptians.
However, as the Moseses are actually partially descended from the people they are fighting, they might themselves have certain Northern biological components in their Nubian genes.
For example, Thutmosis IV, had reddish hair !
An African with Reddish hair !!
Buriel
His hair, which is parted in the middle, is about 16 cm (6.3 in) long and dark reddish-brown.
Link for photo
Thutmose IV
Summary:
So does this make the Rothschilds Jewish?
Does it make them related to Moses?
Does it make them Nubians?
No, i do not think so.
It probably just means, Sheshi, probably liked his Haggis.
Also, it probably also means, you do not need to be Jewish to be a Zionist.
Even red haired people may think they have an entitlement to the Egyptian throne, or were somehow wronged by Sheshi's grandchildren!

submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.09.10 20:07 Apples_Are_Red263 A Defence of Matthean Priority

A Defence of Matthean Priority
A solution to the Synoptic Problem
Matthew wrote first as an apologetic to the Jewish audience that Jesus was the messiah. Matthew is primarily concerned with issues that hint at its context in the nascent Jerusalem church, and reflect the immediate need to cement Jesus as the Jewish messiah first and foremost. This is suggested by the davidic genealogy, his relation to the Torah and fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies. It assumes readers are familiar with Jewish practices, sects and views of scribes, Pharisees and Sadducees, never explaining who they are, and assumes the reader knows why there was such a tension between them and Jesus regarding the mosaic Law, which seems to indicate a polemic between the Jews and the nascent Jerusalem church. It can thus be said to lack any evidence that the church had begun to evangelize to the gentiles. It contains themes of primary interest to Jews and little interest to gentiles, such as Jesus as the successor to Moses’ law (Matt. 5:1-7, 7:29, 10:1-42). It seems plausible that the first document of the Jerusalem church about Jesus the Messiah could have evolved from its context.
Luke wrote second as a way to fulfil the unique needs of the gentile church that was more interested in dates, people and data than the ways in which Jesus fulfilled the messianic prophecies.
In order to give authority to Luke, it needed assent from Peter. To do this, Mark wrote a direct Greek translation of Peter’s Aramaic account in which he recorded all the events in both gospels that Peter could personally assent to based on Peter’s eyewitness testimony, thus abridging the gospels. Peter’s treatment intoruduce many details characteristic of Eyewitness testimony, such as Jesus being asleep on the cushion in the stern of the boat (Mark 4:38), and the figure of the two thousand swine who were drowned in the lake (Mark 5:13). The end to Mark was written as a sequel of sorts after the initial version was published.
“We may thus sum up the relationships between the Gospels as follows: 1. Matthew was composed to meet the urgent needs of the primitive church of Jerusalem (the church set up by Peter and the original apostles), which needed a manifesto defending its integrity and its right to exist in the earliest days. 2. Luke was written at the request of Paul to meet the urgent need of his churches to have their own manifesto to prove their full equality with Jewish Christians. 3. Mark was the result of the collaboration of Peter and Paul to make sure that the spiritual and doctrinal unity of the universal church was not impaired as a result of the appearance of Luke beside Matthew in the churches of both.” (Alan Black, Why Four Gospels?)
Difficulties of Markan Priority
Markan priority assumes patristic evidence is legendary and unreliable, due to three main reasons: i) it is asserted to be inconsistent and contradictory, ii) It is highly unlikely an Eyewitness with the Authority of Peter world produce a document dependent on Matthew and Luke and iii) Internal evidence is claimed to be decisive in favour of Markan priority. As to one, the patristic evidence is decisively not inconsistent, nor contradictory as we will soon see. As to two, not only were abridgements well known, but we have already entertained a scenario in which it is highly plausible - if not necessary, in which Peter would want to create a way to bridge the gospel of the Jews (Matthew) with the gospel of the gentiles (Luke). As to the third contention, the internal evidence is highly subjective and doesn’t support Markan priority nearly as strongly as adherents to Markan priority would have you think. There are a number of historical difficulties with Markan priority, which are as follows:
Matthew is said to have been written after AD 70 and before AD 90. This Greek Matthew is composed to cement Jesus’ status as the Jewish messiah - a purpose which seems most natural in the early years of the nascent Jerusalem church, not the late 70’s somewhere between Damascus and Antioch. Thus, according to Markan priority, the evident purpose of Matthew is entirely out of sync with it’s historical context. There is yet another two problems with Markan priority, namely the difficulty of getting this relatively late document accepted by the Christian churches that were popping up rapidly and the problem of why it was attributed to, of all people, the apostle Matthew when it clearly had very little to do with him. The mainstream church had already presumably happily accepted the gospel of Mark, who was the voice of the authoritative Peter. Why should this work need bolstering by composing a second gospel and falsely attributing it to the apostle Matthew? It is more plausible that Matthew was written in response to the need of the nascent church to ground Jesus first in Judaism, which suits both Matthean priority and early dating.
Evidence for Matthean Priority
The evidence for Markan Priority has been much Overstated. Mark’s colloquial and non-literary way of speaking is sometimes claimed to pose a challenge to Matthean priority, but we have already addressed that this is due to his direct Greek translation of Peter’s speech, and in no way is a sign that Mark was earliest. The vivid details suggest an eyewitness (ie Peter), and extra detail often suggests lateness and dependence. St. Mark’s poor Greek is more likely due to his providing a direct translation of Peter’s Aramaic as opposed to his being the first gospel. Why did Mark leave so much out? This was due to the fact that Peter could only attest, as an eyewitness, to certain parts, and thus left parts of Matthew and Luke out. Mark, at times, makes errors that appear to be corrected by Matthew and Luke; however, it is, again, easily explained by Peter making an error in his speech and Mark simply recording Peter’s version of events.
Positive Evidence for Matthean Priority
Patristic evidence includes various quotes from the church fathers:
“Mark, the follower of Peter, while Peter was publicly preaching the gospel at Rome in the presence of some of Caesar’s knights and uttering many testimonies about Christ, on their asking him to let them have a record of the things that had been said, wrote the Gospel that is called the Gospel of Mark from the things said by Peter, just as Luke is recognized as the pen that wrote the Acts of the Apostles and as the translator of the Letter of Paul to the Hebrews.” (St. Clement of Alexandria, 150–215 AD, Adumbrationes in epistolas canonicas on 1 Peter 5: 13)
“I lay it down to begin with that the documents of the gospel have the apostles for their authors, and that this task of promulgating the gospel was imposed upon them by the Lord himself. . . . In short, from among the apostles, John and Matthew implant in us the faith, while from among the apostolic men Luke and Mark reaffirm it.” (Tertullian, AD 160–225; Against Marcion 4.2.1–2)
“[Paul] had Titus as a recorder [interpres], just as blessed Peter had Mark, whose Gospel consists of Peter’s narration and the latter’s writing.” (St. Jerome, AD 345–420; Epistle 120.11)
“Therefore these four evangelists, well known to the whole world, four in number, perhaps because of the four parts of the world, are said to have been written in this order: first Matthew, then Mark, third Luke, last John. . . . Of the four, Matthew alone is said to have been written in Hebrew. . . . Mark seems to have followed him as his footman and abbreviator.” (St. Augustine, AD 354–430; De consensu evangelistarum 1.3–4)
Additional evidence for Matthean priority is that in some 180 cases, Matthew and Luke both agree with each other, leaving out identical phrases and sentences that are present in Mark. This is such strong evidence as if Mark was the shared source between Luke and Matthew, then it is seems implausible that mere chance would have Matthew and Luke independently leave out the exact same phrases and sentences.
In second century christian Writings, Matthew and Luke are quoted far more frequently than Mark. If Mark enjoyed a period of time being the only gospel, it would make sense that it would be quoted more often. Alan Black notes, “Indeed, it [gMark] is rarely quoted by the early fathers, and the first commentary on it dates from only the fifth century. Its process of composition was quite unlike that of Matthew or Luke, and Peter had no intention of making it into a third Gospel.” (Alan Black, Why Four Gospels?)
Evidence of a Hebraic Matthew
A number of Aramaicisms exist in Matthew which suggest an original aramaic document. Main arguments in favour of a Greek original are the lack of an original aramaic manuscript and puns that only work in Greek. The fact that greek was the language of trade and academia of the time, and the fact that the other gospels were later published in Greek, along with the rest of the New Testament epistles would pressure a scribe to copy Matthew into Greek, and the few aramaic documents would quickly be lost to the sands of time. It is an argument from silence to assert that because we lack Aramaic manuscripts that we can say with confidence Matthew was not originally composed in Aramaic. The second argument is an interesting one, but we must come back to it.
First and foremost, what is the evidence for an Aramaic original? As with many traditional positions, the primary external evidence comes from the church fathers, who are unanimous that Matthew was originally authored not in Koine Greek, but aramaic.
“Matthew also issued a written Gospel among the Hebrews in their own dialect, while Peter and Paul were preaching in Rome and laying the foundation of the Church. After their departure, Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, did also hand down to us in writing what had been preached by Peter. Luke also, the companion of Paul, recorded in a book the Gospel preached by him. Afterwards John, the disciple of the Lord, who also had leaned upon his breast, did himself publish a Gospel during his residence at Ephesus in Asia.” (Against Heresies 3:1:1)
“Among the four Gospels, which are the only indisputable ones in the Church of God under heaven, I have learned by tradition that the first was written by Matthew, who was once a publican, but afterwards an apostle of Jesus Christ, and it was prepared for the converts from Judaism and published in the Hebrew language” (Commentaries on Matthew [cited by Eusebius in History of the Church 6:25]).
“Matthew had begun by preaching to the Hebrews, and when he made up his mind to go to others too, he committed his own Gospel to writing in his native tongue [Aramaic], so that for those with whom he was no longer present the gap left by his departure was filled by what he wrote” (History of the Church 3:24 [inter 300-325]).
Other external evidence includes the previously established immediately jewish context. In the context of Matthean priority, we must question why Matthew, a gospel primarily concerned with establishing the legitimacy of Christ as the messiah and Christianity as the completion of Judaism to Jews who rejected the possibility that Jesus could have been the messiah, would have chosen Greek - a gentile language - as the language of choice to author his gospel. In addition to this external evidence that cannot be easily ignored, a number of Aramaicisms are present in Matthew which suggest a Hebraic original. The word ‘Behold’ (in Greek: “idou” and in Aramaic: “hen”) was used much more frequently in Aramaic than Greek in the sense in which it is employed here. It is employed a total of 25 times in narrations in Matthew where there are parallels in Mark. Mark omits it every time during narration and 9 out of 13 times where it is employed in dialogue. The word ‘Tote’ meaning ‘then’ is another Aramaicism used 89 times in Matthew, 61 of which are in narration, and Mark omits the majority of these, using it only six times in discourse and never in narration. The use of the word ‘and’ to initiate sentences is an aramaicism prevalent in Matthew and Mark. The plural use of ‘the heavens’ is more prevalent in the aramaic language than its Greek counterpart, and is more prevalent in Matthew than the other gospels. The ‘Sea of Galilee’ is an aramaicism present in Matthew and Mark, but not in Luke who employs the Greek word ‘Limne’ denoting the fresh water body as a Lake.
Thus, the preponderance of internal and external evidence seems to suggest a gospel originally composed in Aramaic, and later translated into Greek. What of the Greek puns? These were likely alterations of Aramaic puns or additions of Greek puns by a later Greek scribe, who capitalized on the opportunity to introduce puns in specific places, such as omission of the word ‘net’ in translating the pericope of Jesus walking on water. ‘Amphiballo’ the Greek word usually translated as ‘casting a net’ without an object can be understood to mean ‘to be doubtful’. Other such puns were introduced or altered by a later Greek scribe.
submitted by Apples_Are_Red263 to AcademicBiblical [link] [comments]


2020.08.13 22:21 OB8O Every Legal 4-Letter Word In Scrabble

AAHS AALS ABAC ABAS ABBA ABBE ABBS ABED ABET ABID ABLE ABLY ABOS ABRI ABUT ABYE ABYS ACAI ACCA ACED ACER ACES ACHE ACHY ACID ACME ACNE ACRE ACTA ACTS ACYL ADAW ADDS ADDY ADIT ADOS ADRY ADZE AEON AERO AERY AESC AFAR AFFY AFRO AGAR AGAS AGED AGEE AGEN AGER AGES AGHA AGIN AGIO AGLU AGLY AGMA AGOG AGON AGUE AHED AHEM AHIS AHOY AIAS AIDA AIDE AIDS AIGA AILS AIMS AINE AINS AIRN AIRS AIRT AIRY AITS AITU AJAR AJEE AKAS AKED AKEE AKES AKIN ALAE ALAN ALAP ALAR ALAS ALAY ALBA ALBE ALBS ALCO ALEC ALEE ALEF ALES ALEW ALFA ALFS ALGA ALIF ALIT ALKO ALKY ALLS ALLY ALMA ALME ALMS ALOD ALOE ALOO ALOW ALPS ALSO ALTO ALTS ALUM ALUS AMAH AMAS AMBO AMEN AMES AMIA AMID AMIE AMIN AMIR AMIS AMLA AMMO AMOK AMPS AMUS AMYL ANAL ANAN ANAS ANCE ANDS ANES ANEW ANGA ANIL ANIS ANKH ANNA ANNO ANNS ANOA ANON ANOW ANSA ANTA ANTE ANTI ANTS ANUS APAY APED APER APES APEX APOD APOS APPS APSE APSO APTS AQUA ARAK ARAR ARBA ARBS ARCH ARCO ARCS ARDS AREA ARED AREG ARES ARET AREW ARFS ARGH ARIA ARID ARIL ARIS ARKS ARLE ARMS ARMY ARNA AROW ARPA ARSE ARSY ARTI ARTS ARTY ARUM ARVO ARYL ASAR ASCI ASEA ASHY ASKS ASPS ATAP ATES ATMA ATOC ATOK ATOM ATOP ATUA AUAS AUFS AUKS AULA AULD AUNE AUNT AURA AUTO AVAL AVAS AVEL AVER AVES AVID AVOS AVOW AWAY AWDL AWED AWEE AWES AWFY AWKS AWLS AWNS AWNY AWOL AWRY AXAL AXED AXEL AXES AXIL AXIS AXLE AXON AYAH AYES AYIN AYRE AYUS AZAN AZON AZYM
BAAL BAAS BABA BABE BABU BABY BACH BACK BACS BADE BADS BAEL BAFF BAFT BAGH BAGS BAHT BAHU BAIL BAIT BAJU BAKE BALD BALE BALK BALL BALM BALS BALU BAMS BANC BAND BANE BANG BANI BANK BANS BANT BAPS BAPU BARB BARD BARE BARF BARK BARM BARN BARP BARS BASE BASH BASK BASS BAST BATE BATH BATS BATT BAUD BAUK BAUR BAWD BAWL BAWN BAWR BAYE BAYS BAYT BEAD BEAK BEAM BEAN BEAR BEAT BEAU BECK BEDE BEDS BEDU BEEF BEEN BEEP BEER BEES BEET BEGO BEGS BEIN BELL BELS BELT BEMA BEND BENE BENI BENJ BENS BENT BERE BERG BERK BERM BEST BETA BETE BETH BETS BEVY BEYS BHAI BHAT BHEL BHUT BIAS BIBB BIBS BICE BIDE BIDI BIDS BIEN BIER BIFF BIGA BIGG BIGS BIKE BILE BILK BILL BIMA BIND BINE BING BINK BINS BINT BIOG BIOS BIRD BIRK BIRL BIRO BIRR BISE BISH BISK BIST BITE BITO BITS BITT BIZE BLAB BLAD BLAE BLAG BLAH BLAM BLAT BLAW BLAY BLEB BLED BLEE BLET BLEW BLEY BLIN BLIP BLIT BLOB BLOC BLOG BLOT BLOW BLUB BLUE BLUR BOAB BOAK BOAR BOAS BOAT BOBA BOBS BOCK BODE BODS BODY BOEP BOET BOFF BOGS BOGY BOHO BOHS BOIL BOIS BOKE BOKO BOKS BOLA BOLD BOLE BOLL BOLO BOLT BOMA BOMB BONA BOND BONE BONG BONK BONY BOOB BOOH BOOK BOOL BOOM BOON BOOR BOOS BOOT BOPS BORA BORD BORE BORK BORM BORN BORS BORT BOSH BOSK BOSS BOTA BOTE BOTH BOTS BOTT BOUK BOUN BOUT BOWL BOWR BOWS BOXY BOYF BOYG BOYO BOYS BOZO BRAD BRAE BRAG BRAK BRAN BRAS BRAT BRAW BRAY BRED BREE BREI BREN BRER BREW BREY BRIE BRIG BRIK BRIM BRIN BRIO BRIS BRIT BROD BROG BROO BROS BROW BRRR BRUS BRUT BRUX BUAT BUBA BUBO BUBS BUBU BUCK BUDA BUDI BUDO BUDS BUFF BUFO BUGS BUHL BUHR BUIK BUKE BULB BULK BULL BUMF BUMP BUMS BUNA BUND BUNG BUNK BUNN BUNS BUNT BUOY BURA BURB BURD BURG BURK BURL BURN BURP BURR BURS BURY BUSH BUSK BUSS BUST BUSY BUTE BUTS BUTT BUYS BUZZ BYDE BYES BYKE BYRE BYRL BYTE
CAAS CABA CABS CACA CACK CADE CADI CADS CAFE CAFF CAGE CAGS CAGY CAID CAIN CAKE CAKY CALF CALK CALL CALM CALO CALP CALX CAMA CAME CAMO CAMP CAMS CANE CANG CANN CANS CANT CANY CAPA CAPE CAPH CAPI CAPO CAPS CARB CARD CARE CARK CARL CARN CARP CARR CARS CART CASA CASE CASH CASK CAST CATE CATS CAUF CAUK CAUL CAUM CAUP CAVA CAVE CAVY CAWK CAWS CAYS CEAS CECA CEDE CEDI CEES CEIL CELL CELS CELT CENS CENT CEPE CEPS CERE CERO CERT CESS CETE CHAD CHAI CHAL CHAM CHAO CHAP CHAR CHAS CHAT CHAV CHAW CHAY CHEF CHER CHEW CHEZ CHIA CHIB CHIC CHID CHIK CHIN CHIP CHIS CHIT CHIV CHIZ CHOC CHOG CHON CHOP CHOU CHOW CHUB CHUG CHUM CHUR CHUT CIAO CIDE CIDS CIEL CIGS CILL CINE CION CIRE CIRL CIST CITE CITO CITS CITY CIVE CLAD CLAG CLAM CLAN CLAP CLAT CLAW CLAY CLEF CLEG CLEM CLEW CLIP CLIT CLOD CLOG CLON CLOP CLOT CLOU CLOW CLOY CLUB CLUE COAL COAT COAX COBB COBS COCA COCH COCK COCO CODA CODE CODS COED COFF COFT COGS COHO COIF COIL COIN COIR COIT COKE COKY COLA COLD COLE COLL COLS COLT COLY COMA COMB COME COMM COMP COMS COND CONE CONF CONI CONK CONN CONS CONY COOF COOK COOL COOM COON COOP COOS COOT COPE COPS COPY CORD CORE CORF CORK CORM CORN CORS CORY COSE COSH COSS COST COSY COTE COTH COTS COTT COUP COUR COVE COWK COWL COWP COWS COWY COXA COXY COYS COZE COZY CRAB CRAG CRAM CRAN CRAP CRAW CRAY CRED CREE CREM CREW CRIA CRIB CRIM CRIS CRIT CROC CROG CROP CROW CRUD CRUE CRUS CRUX CUBE CUBS CUDS CUED CUES CUFF CUIF CUIT CUKE CULL CULM CULT CUMS CUNT CUPS CURB CURD CURE CURF CURL CURN CURR CURS CURT CUSH CUSK CUSP CUSS CUTE CUTS CWMS CYAN CYMA CYME CYST CYTE CZAR
DAAL DABS DACE DACK DADA DADO DADS DAES DAFF DAFT DAGO DAGS DAHL DAHS DAIS DAKS DALE DALI DALS DALT DAME DAMN DAMP DAMS DANG DANK DANS DANT DAPS DARB DARE DARG DARI DARK DARN DART DASH DATA DATE DATO DAUB DAUD DAUR DAUT DAVY DAWD DAWK DAWN DAWS DAWT DAYS DAZE DEAD DEAF DEAL DEAN DEAR DEAW DEBE DEBS DEBT DECK DECO DEED DEEK DEEM DEEN DEEP DEER DEES DEET DEEV DEFI DEFO DEFT DEFY DEGS DEGU DEID DEIF DEIL DEKE DELE DELF DELI DELL DELO DELS DELT DEME DEMO DEMY DENE DENI DENS DENT DENY DERE DERM DERN DERO DERV DESI DESK DEUS DEVA DEVS DEWS DEWY DEXY DEYS DHAK DHAL DHOL DHOW DIAL DIBS DICE DICH DICK DICT DIDO DIDY DIEB DIED DIEL DIES DIET DIFF DIFS DIGS DIKA DIKE DILL DIME DIMP DIMS DINE DING DINK DINO DINS DINT DIOL DIPS DIPT DIRE DIRK DIRL DIRT DISA DISC DISH DISK DISS DITA DITE DITS DITT DITZ DIVA DIVE DIVI DIVO DIVS DIXI DIXY DIYA DJIN DOAB DOAT DOBS DOBY DOCK DOCO DOCS DODO DODS DOEK DOEN DOER DOES DOFF DOGE DOGS DOGY DOHS DOIT DOJO DOLE DOLL DOLS DOLT DOME DOMS DOMY DONA DONE DONG DONS DOOB DOOK DOOL DOOM DOON DOOR DOOS DOPA DOPE DOPS DOPY DORB DORE DORK DORM DORP DORR DORS DORT DORY DOSE DOSH DOSS DOST DOTE DOTH DOTS DOTY DOUC DOUK DOUM DOUN DOUP DOUR DOUT DOUX DOVE DOWD DOWF DOWL DOWN DOWP DOWS DOWT DOXY DOYS DOZE DOZY DRAB DRAC DRAD DRAG DRAM DRAP DRAT DRAW DRAY DREE DREG DREK DREW DREY DRIB DRIP DROP DROW DRUB DRUG DRUM DRYS DSOS DUAD DUAL DUAN DUAR DUBS DUCE DUCI DUCK DUCT DUDE DUDS DUED DUEL DUES DUET DUFF DUGS DUIT DUKA DUKE DULE DULL DULY DUMA DUMB DUMP DUNE DUNG DUNK DUNS DUNT DUOS DUPE DUPS DURA DURE DURN DURO DURR DUSH DUSK DUST DUTY DWAM DYAD DYED DYER DYES DYKE DYNE DZHO DZOS
EACH EALE EANS EARD EARL EARN EARS EASE EAST EASY EATH EATS EAUS EAUX EAVE EBBS EBON ECAD ECCE ECCO ECHE ECHO ECHT ECOD ECOS ECRU ECUS EDDO EDDY EDGE EDGY EDHS EDIT EECH EELS EELY EERY EEVN EFFS EFTS EGAD EGAL EGER EGGS EGGY EGIS EGMA EGOS EHED EIDE EIKS EILD EINA EINE EISH EKED EKES EKKA ELAN ELDS ELFS ELHI ELKS ELLS ELMS ELMY ELSE ELTS EMES EMEU EMIC EMIR EMIT EMMA EMMY EMOS EMPT EMUS EMYD EMYS ENDS ENES ENEW ENGS ENOL ENOW ENUF ENVY EOAN EONS EORL EPEE EPHA EPIC EPOS ERAS ERED ERES EREV ERGO ERGS ERHU ERIC ERKS ERNE ERNS EROS ERRS ERST ERUV ESES ESKY ESNE ESPY ESSE ESTS ETAS ETAT ETCH ETEN ETHE ETHS ETIC ETNA ETUI EUGE EUGH EUKS EUOI EURO EVEN EVER EVES EVET EVIL EVOE EVOS EWER EWES EWKS EWTS EXAM EXEC EXED EXES EXIT EXON EXPO EXUL EYAS EYED EYEN EYER EYES EYNE EYOT EYRA EYRE EYRY
FAAN FAAS FABS FACE FACT FADE FADO FADS FADY FAFF FAGS FAHS FAIK FAIL FAIN FAIR FAIX FAKE FALL FALX FAME FAND FANE FANG FANK FANO FANS FARD FARE FARL FARM FARO FARS FART FASH FAST FATE FATS FAUN FAUR FAUT FAUX FAVA FAVE FAWN FAWS FAYS FAZE FEAL FEAR FEAT FECK FEDS FEEB FEED FEEL FEEN FEER FEES FEET FEGS FEHM FEHS FEIS FELL FELT FEME FEMS FEND FENI FENS FENT FEOD FERE FERM FERN FESS FEST FETA FETE FETS FETT FEUD FEUS FEWS FEYS FIAR FIAT FIBS FICE FICO FIDO FIDS FIEF FIER FIFE FIGO FIGS FIKE FIKY FILA FILE FILL FILM FILO FILS FIND FINE FINI FINK FINO FINS FIQH FIRE FIRK FIRM FIRN FIRS FISC FISH FISK FIST FITS FITT FIVE FIXT FIZZ FLAB FLAG FLAK FLAM FLAN FLAP FLAT FLAW FLAX FLAY FLEA FLED FLEE FLEG FLEW FLEX FLEY FLIC FLIM FLIP FLIR FLIT FLIX FLOB FLOC FLOE FLOG FLOP FLOR FLOW FLOX FLUB FLUE FLUS FLUX FOAL FOAM FOBS FOCI FOEN FOES FOGS FOGY FOHN FOID FOIL FOIN FOLD FOLK FOND FONE FONS FONT FOOD FOOL FOOT FOPS FORA FORB FORD FORE FORK FORM FORT FOSS FOUD FOUL FOUR FOUS FOWL FOXY FOYS FOZY FRAB FRAE FRAG FRAP FRAS FRAT FRAU FRAY FREE FRET FRIB FRIG FRIS FRIT FRIZ FROE FROG FROM FROS FROW FRUG FUBS FUCI FUCK FUDS FUEL FUFF FUGS FUGU FUJI FULL FUME FUMS FUMY FUND FUNG FUNK FUNS FURL FURR FURS FURY FUSC FUSE FUSS FUST FUTZ FUZE FUZZ FYCE FYKE FYLE FYRD
GABS GABY GADE GADI GADS GAED GAEN GAES GAFF GAGA GAGE GAGS GAID GAIN GAIR GAIT GAJO GAKS GALA GALE GALL GALS GAMA GAMB GAME GAMP GAMS GAMY GANE GANG GANS GANT GAOL GAPE GAPO GAPS GAPY GARB GARE GARI GARS GART GASH GASP GAST GATE GATH GATS GAUD GAUM GAUN GAUP GAUR GAUS GAVE GAWD GAWK GAWP GAWS GAYS GAZE GAZY GEAL GEAN GEAR GEAT GECK GEDS GEED GEEK GEEP GEES GEEZ GEIT GELD GELS GELT GEMS GENA GENE GENS GENT GENU GEOS GERE GERM GERS GERT GEST GETA GETS GEUM GHAT GHEE GHIS GIBE GIBS GIDS GIED GIEN GIES GIFT GIGA GIGS GILA GILD GILL GILT GIMP GING GINK GINN GINS GIOS GIPS GIRD GIRL GIRN GIRO GIRR GIRT GISM GIST GITE GITS GIVE GIZZ GJUS GLAD GLAM GLED GLEE GLEG GLEI GLEN GLEY GLIA GLIB GLID GLIM GLIT GLOB GLOM GLOP GLOW GLUE GLUG GLUM GLUT GNAR GNAT GNAW GNOW GNUS GOAD GOAF GOAL GOAS GOAT GOBI GOBO GOBS GOBY GODS GOEL GOER GOES GOEY GOFF GOGO GOJI GOLD GOLE GOLF GOLP GONE GONG GONK GONS GOOD GOOF GOOG GOOK GOOL GOON GOOP GOOR GOOS GORA GORE GORI GORM GORP GORY GOSH GOSS GOTH GOUK GOUT GOVS GOWD GOWF GOWK GOWL GOWN GOYS GRAB GRAD GRAM GRAN GRAT GRAV GRAY GREE GREN GREW GREX GREY GRID GRIG GRIM GRIN GRIP GRIS GRIT GROG GROK GROT GROW GRRL GRUB GRUE GRUM GUAN GUAR GUBS GUCK GUDE GUES GUFF GUGA GUID GULA GULE GULF GULL GULP GULS GULY GUMP GUMS GUNG GUNK GUNS GUPS GURL GURN GURS GURU GUSH GUST GUTS GUVS GUYS GYAL GYBE GYMP GYMS GYNY GYPS GYRE GYRI GYRO GYTE GYVE
HAAF HAAR HABU HACK HADE HADJ HADS HAED HAEM HAEN HAES HAET HAFF HAFT HAGG HAGS HAHA HAHS HAIK HAIL HAIN HAIR HAJI HAJJ HAKA HAKE HAKU HALE HALF HALL HALM HALO HALT HAME HAMS HAND HANG HANK HANT HAOS HAPS HAPU HARD HARE HARK HARL HARM HARN HARO HARP HART HASH HASK HASP HASS HAST HATE HATH HATS HAUD HAUF HAUL HAUT HAVE HAWK HAWM HAWS HAYS HAZE HAZY HEAD HEAL HEAP HEAR HEAT HEBE HECH HECK HEED HEEL HEFT HEHS HEID HEIL HEIR HELD HELE HELL HELM HELO HELP HEME HEMP HEMS HEND HENS HENT HEPS HEPT HERB HERD HERE HERL HERM HERN HERO HERS HERY HESP HEST HETE HETH HETS HEWN HEWS HEYS HICK HIDE HIED HIES HIGH HIKE HILA HILD HILI HILL HILT HIMS HIND HING HINS HINT HIOI HIPS HIPT HIRE HISH HISN HISS HIST HITS HIVE HIYA HIZZ HOAR HOAS HOAX HOBO HOBS HOCK HODS HOED HOER HOES HOGG HOGH HOGS HOHA HOHS HOIK HOKA HOKE HOKI HOLD HOLE HOLK HOLM HOLP HOLS HOLT HOLY HOMA HOME HOMO HOMS HOMY HOND HONE HONG HONK HONS HOOD HOOF HOOK HOON HOOP HOOR HOOT HOPE HOPS HORA HORE HORI HORN HORS HOSE HOSS HOST HOTE HOTS HOUF HOUR HOUT HOVE HOWE HOWF HOWK HOWL HOWS HOYA HOYS HUBS HUCK HUED HUER HUES HUFF HUGE HUGS HUGY HUHU HUIA HUIC HUIS HULA HULE HULK HULL HUMA HUMF HUMP HUMS HUNG HUNH HUNK HUNS HUNT HUPS HURL HURT HUSH HUSK HUSO HUSS HUTS HWAN HWYL HYED HYEN HYES HYKE HYLA HYLE HYMN HYPE HYPO HYPS HYTE
IAMB IBEX IBIS ICED ICER ICES ICHS ICKY ICON IDEA IDEE IDEM IDES IDLE IDLY IDOL IDYL IFFY IGAD IGGS IGLU IKAN IKAT IKON ILEA ILEX ILIA ILKA ILKS ILLS ILLY IMAM IMID IMMY IMPI IMPS INBY INCH INFO INGO INGS INIA INKS INKY INLY INNS INRO INTI INTO IONS IOTA IRED IRES IRID IRIS IRKS IRON ISBA ISIT ISLE ISMS ISNA ISOS ITAS ITCH ITEM IURE IWIS IXIA IZAR
JAAP JABS JACK JADE JAFA JAGA JAGG JAGS JAIL JAKE JAKS JAMB JAMS JANE JANN JAPE JAPS JARK JARL JARP JARS JASP JASS JASY JATO JAUK JAUP JAVA JAWS JAXY JAYS JAZY JAZZ JEAN JEAT JEDI JEED JEEL JEEP JEER JEES JEEZ JEFE JEFF JEHU JELL JEON JERK JESS JEST JETE JETS JEUX JEWS JIAO JIBB JIBE JIBS JIFF JIGS JILL JILT JIMP JINK JINN JINS JINX JIRD JISM JIVE JIVY JIZZ JOBE JOBS JOCK JOCO JOES JOEY JOGS JOHN JOIN JOKE JOKY JOLE JOLL JOLS JOLT JOMO JONG JOOK JORS JOSH JOSS JOTA JOTS JOUK JOUR JOWL JOWS JOYS JUBA JUBE JUCO JUDO JUDS JUDY JUGA JUGS JUJU JUKE JUKU JUMP JUNK JUPE JURA JURE JURY JUST JUTE JUTS JUVE JYNX
KAAL KAAS KABS KACK KADE KADI KAED KAES KAFS KAGO KAGU KAID KAIE KAIF KAIK KAIL KAIM KAIN KAIS KAKA KAKI KAKS KALE KALI KAMA KAME KAMI KANA KANE KANG KANS KANT KAON KAPA KAPH KARA KARK KARN KARO KART KATA KATI KATS KAVA KAWA KAWS KAYO KAYS KAZI KBAR KEAS KEBS KECK KEDS KEEF KEEK KEEL KEEN KEEP KEET KEFS KEGS KEIR KEKS KELL KELP KELT KEMB KEMP KENO KENS KENT KEPI KEPS KEPT KERB KERF KERN KERO KESH KEST KETA KETE KETO KETS KEWL KEYS KHAF KHAN KHAT KHET KHIS KHOR KHUD KIBE KICK KIDS KIEF KIER KIEV KIFF KIFS KIKE KILD KILL KILN KILO KILP KILT KINA KIND KINE KING KINK KINO KINS KIPE KIPP KIPS KIRK KIRN KIRS KISH KISS KIST KITE KITH KITS KIVA KIWI KLAP KLIK KNAG KNAP KNAR KNEE KNEW KNIT KNOB KNOP KNOT KNOW KNUB KNUR KNUT KOAN KOAP KOAS KOBO KOBS KOEL KOFF KOHA KOHL KOIS KOJI KOKA KOLA KOLO KOND KONK KONS KOOK KOPH KOPS KORA KORE KORO KORS KORU KOSS KOTO KOWS KRAB KRIS KSAR KUDO KUDU KUEH KUES KUFI KUIA KUKU KULA KUNA KUNE KURI KURU KUTA KUTI KUTU KUZU KVAS KYAK KYAR KYAT KYBO KYES KYLE KYND KYNE KYPE KYTE KYUS
LABS LACE LACK LACS LACY LADE LADS LADY LAER LAGS LAHS LAIC LAID LAIK LAIN LAIR LAKE LAKH LAKY LALL LAMA LAMB LAME LAMP LAMS LANA LAND LANE LANG LANK LANT LANX LAPS LARD LARE LARI LARK LARN LARS LASE LASH LASS LAST LATE LATH LATI LATS LATU LAUD LAUF LAVA LAVE LAVS LAWK LAWN LAWS LAYS LAZE LAZO LAZY LEAD LEAF LEAK LEAL LEAM LEAN LEAP LEAR LEAS LEAT LECH LEED LEEK LEEP LEER LEES LEET LEFT LEGS LEHR LEIR LEIS LEKE LEKS LEKU LEME LEND LENG LENO LENS LENT LEPS LEPT LERE LERP LESS LEST LETS LEUD LEVA LEVE LEVO LEVY LEWD LEYS LEZZ LIAR LIAS LIBS LICE LICH LICK LIDO LIDS LIED LIEF LIEN LIER LIES LIEU LIFE LIFT LIGS LIKE LILL LILO LILT LILY LIMA LIMB LIME LIMN LIMO LIMP LIMY LIND LINE LING LINK LINN LINO LINS LINT LINY LION LIPA LIPE LIPO LIPS LIRA LIRE LIRI LIRK LISK LISP LIST LITE LITH LITS LITU LIVE LOAD LOAF LOAM LOAN LOBE LOBI LOBO LOBS LOCA LOCH LOCI LOCK LOCO LODE LODS LOFT LOGE LOGO LOGS LOGY LOID LOIN LOIR LOKE LOLL LOMA LOME LONE LONG LOOF LOOK LOOM LOON LOOP LOOR LOOS LOOT LOPE LOPS LORD LORE LORN LORY LOSE LOSH LOSS LOST LOTA LOTE LOTH LOTI LOTO LOTS LOUD LOUN LOUP LOUR LOUS LOUT LOVE LOWE LOWN LOWP LOWS LOWT LOYS LUAU LUBE LUCE LUCK LUDE LUDO LUDS LUES LUFF LUGE LUGS LUIT LUKE LULL LULU LUMA LUMP LUMS LUNA LUNE LUNG LUNK LUNT LUNY LURE LURK LURS LUSH LUSK LUST LUTE LUTZ LUVS LUXE LWEI LYAM LYCH LYES LYME LYMS LYNE LYNX LYRA LYRE LYSE LYTE
MAAR MAAS MABE MACE MACH MACK MACS MADE MADS MAES MAGE MAGG MAGI MAGS MAHA MAID MAIK MAIL MAIM MAIN MAIR MAKE MAKI MAKO MAKS MALA MALE MALI MALL MALM MALS MALT MAMA MAMS MANA MAND MANE MANG MANI MANO MANS MANY MAPS MARA MARC MARD MARE MARG MARK MARL MARM MARS MART MARY MASA MASE MASH MASK MASS MAST MASU MATE MATH MATS MATT MATY MAUD MAUL MAUN MAUT MAWK MAWN MAWR MAWS MAXI MAYA MAYO MAYS MAZE MAZY MEAD MEAL MEAN MEAT MECK MEDS MEED MEEK MEER MEES MEET MEFF MEGA MEGS MEIN MELA MELD MELL MELS MELT MEME MEMO MEMS MEND MENE MENG MENO MENT MENU MEOU MEOW MERC MERE MERI MERK MERL MESA MESE MESH MESS META METE METH METS MEUS MEVE MEWL MEWS MEZE MEZZ MHOS MIBS MICA MICE MICH MICK MICO MICS MIDI MIDS MIEN MIFF MIGG MIGS MIHA MIHI MIKE MILD MILE MILF MILK MILL MILO MILS MILT MIME MINA MIND MINE MING MINI MINK MINO MINT MINX MINY MIPS MIRE MIRI MIRK MIRO MIRS MIRV MIRY MISE MISO MISS MIST MITE MITT MITY MIXT MIXY MIZZ MNAS MOAI MOAN MOAS MOAT MOBE MOBS MOBY MOCH MOCK MOCS MODE MODI MODS MOER MOES MOFO MOGS MOHR MOIL MOIT MOJO MOKE MOKI MOKO MOLA MOLD MOLE MOLL MOLS MOLT MOLY MOME MOMI MOMS MONA MONG MONK MONO MONS MONY MOOD MOOI MOOK MOOL MOON MOOP MOOR MOOS MOOT MOPE MOPS MOPY MORA MORE MORN MORS MORT MOSE MOSH MOSK MOSS MOST MOTE MOTH MOTI MOTS MOTT MOTU MOUE MOUP MOUS MOVE MOWA MOWN MOWS MOXA MOYA MOYL MOYS MOZE MOZO MOZZ MUCH MUCK MUDS MUFF MUGG MUGS MUID MUIL MUIR MULE MULL MUMM MUMP MUMS MUMU MUNG MUNI MUNS MUNT MUON MURA MURE MURK MURL MURR MUSE MUSH MUSK MUSO MUSS MUST MUTE MUTI MUTS MUTT MUZZ MWAH MYAL MYCS MYNA MYTH MYXO MZEE
NAAM NAAN NABE NABK NABS NACH NADA NADS NAFF NAGA NAGS NAIF NAIK NAIL NAIN NALA NAME NAMS NAMU NANA NANE NANG NANS NAOI NAOS NAPA NAPE NAPS NARC NARD NARE NARK NARY NATS NAVE NAVY NAYS NAZE NAZI NEAL NEAP NEAR NEAT NEBS NECK NEDS NEED NEEM NEEP NEFS NEGS NEIF NEKS NEMA NEMN NENE NEON NEPS NERD NERK NESH NESS NEST NETE NETS NETT NEUK NEUM NEVE NEVI NEWS NEWT NEXT NGAI NIBS NICE NICK NIDE NIDI NIDS NIED NIEF NIES NIFE NIFF NIGH NILL NILS NIMB NIMS NINE NIPA NIPS NIRL NISH NISI NITE NITS NIXE NIXY NOAH NOBS NOCK NODE NODI NODS NOEL NOES NOGG NOGS NOIL NOIR NOLE NOLL NOLO NOMA NOME NOMS NONA NONE NONG NONI NOOB NOOK NOON NOOP NOPE NORI NORK NORM NOSE NOSH NOSY NOTA NOTE NOTT NOUL NOUN NOUP NOUS NOUT NOVA NOWL NOWN NOWS NOWT NOWY NOYS NUBS NUDE NUFF NUKE NULL NUMB NUNS NURD NURL NURR NURS NUTS NYAS NYED NYES
OAFS OAKS OAKY OARS OARY OAST OATH OATS OATY OBAS OBES OBEY OBIA OBIS OBIT OBOE OBOL OBOS OCAS OCCY OCHE OCTA ODAH ODAL ODAS ODDS ODEA ODES ODIC ODOR ODSO ODYL OFAY OFFS OFFY OGAM OGEE OGLE OGRE OHED OHIA OHMS OIKS OILS OILY OINK OINT OKAS OKAY OKEH OKES OKRA OKTA OLDE OLDS OLDY OLEA OLEO OLES OLID OLIO OLLA OLMS OLPE OMBU OMEN OMER OMIT OMOV ONCE ONER ONES ONIE ONLY ONOS ONST ONTO ONUS ONYX OOFS OOFY OOHS OOMS OONS OONT OOPS OOSE OOSY OOTS OOZE OOZY OPAH OPAL OPED OPEN OPES OPPO OPTS OPUS ORAD ORAL ORBS ORBY ORCA ORCS ORDO ORDS ORES ORFE ORFS ORGY ORLE ORRA ORTS ORYX ORZO OSAR OSES OSSA OTIC OTTO OUCH OUDS OUKS OULD OULK OUMA OUPA OUPH OUPS OURN OURS OUST OUTS OUZO OVAL OVEL OVEN OVER OVUM OWED OWER OWES OWLS OWLY OWNS OWRE OWSE OWTS OXEN OXER OXES OXID OXIM OYER OYES OYEZ PAAL
PAAN PACA PACE PACK PACO PACS PACT PACY PADI PADS PAGE PAHS PAID PAIK PAIL PAIN PAIR PAIS PALE PALL PALM PALP PALS PALY PAMS PAND PANE PANG PANS PANT PAPA PAPE PAPS PARA PARD PARE PARK PARP PARR PARS PART PASE PASH PASS PAST PATE PATH PATS PATU PATY PAUA PAUL PAVE PAVS PAWA PAWK PAWL PAWN PAWS PAYS PEAG PEAK PEAL PEAN PEAR PEAS PEAT PEBA PECH PECK PECS PEDS PEED PEEK PEEL PEEN PEEP PEER PEES PEGH PEGS PEHS PEIN PEKE PELA PELE PELF PELL PELS PELT PEND PENE PENI PENK PENS PENT PEON PEPO PEPS PERE PERI PERK PERM PERN PERP PERT PERV PESO PEST PETS PEWS PFFT PFUI PHAT PHEW PHIS PHIZ PHOH PHON PHOS PHOT PHUT PIAL PIAN PIAS PICA PICE PICK PICS PIED PIER PIES PIET PIGS PIKA PIKE PIKI PILA PILE PILI PILL PILY PIMA PIMP PINA PINE PING PINK PINS PINT PINY PION PIOY PIPA PIPE PIPI PIPS PIPY PIRL PIRN PIRS PISE PISH PISO PISS PITA PITH PITS PITY PIUM PIXY PIZE PLAN PLAP PLAT PLAY PLEA PLEB PLED PLEW PLEX PLIE PLIM PLOD PLOP PLOT PLOW PLOY PLUE PLUG PLUM PLUS POAS POCK POCO PODS POEM POEP POET POGO POGY POIS POKE POKY POLE POLK POLL POLO POLS POLT POLY POME POMO POMP POMS POND PONE PONG PONK PONS PONT PONY POOD POOF POOH POOK POOL POON POOP POOR POOS POOT POPE POPS PORE PORK PORN PORT PORY POSE POSH POSS POST POSY POTE POTS POTT POUF POUK POUR POUT POWN POWS POXY POZZ PRAD PRAM PRAO PRAT PRAU PRAY PREE PREM PREP PREX PREY PREZ PRIG PRIM PROA PROB PROD PROF PROG PROM PROO PROP PROS PROW PRUH PRYS PSIS PSST PTUI PUBE PUBS PUCE PUCK PUDS PUDU PUER PUFF PUGH PUGS PUHA PUIR PUJA PUKA PUKE PUKU PUKY PULA PULE PULI PULK PULL PULP PULS PULU PULY PUMA PUMP PUMY PUNA PUNG PUNK PUNS PUNT PUNY PUPA PUPS PUPU PURE PURI PURL PURR PURS PUSH PUSS PUTS PUTT PUTZ PUYS PYAS PYAT PYES PYET PYIC PYIN PYNE PYOT PYRE PYRO QADI
QAID QATS QINS QOPH QUAD QUAG QUAI QUAT QUAY QUEP QUEY QUID QUIM QUIN QUIP QUIT QUIZ QUOD QUOP
RABI RACA RACE RACH RACK RACY RADE RADS RAFF RAFT RAGA RAGE RAGG RAGI RAGS RAGU RAHS RAIA RAID RAIK RAIL RAIN RAIS RAIT RAJA RAKE RAKI RAKU RALE RAMI RAMP RAMS RANA RAND RANG RANI RANK RANT RAPE RAPS RAPT RARE RARK RASE RASH RASP RAST RATA RATE RATH RATO RATS RATU RAUN RAVE RAVS RAWN RAWS RAYA RAYS RAZE RAZZ READ REAK REAL REAM REAN REAP REAR REBS RECK RECS REDD REDE REDO REDS REED REEF REEK REEL REEN REES REFS REFT REGO REGS REHS REIF REIK REIN REIS REKE RELY REMS REND RENK RENS RENT RENY REOS REPO REPP REPS RESH REST RETE RETS REVS REWS RHEA RHOS RHUS RIAD RIAL RIAS RIBA RIBS RICE RICH RICK RICY RIDE RIDS RIEL RIEM RIFE RIFF RIFS RIFT RIGG RIGS RILE RILL RIMA RIME RIMS RIMU RIMY RIND RINE RING RINK RINS RIOT RIPE RIPP RIPS RIPT RISE RISK RISP RITE RITS RITT RITZ RIVA RIVE RIVO RIZA ROAD ROAM ROAN ROAR ROBE ROBS ROCH ROCK ROCS RODE RODS ROED ROES ROIL ROIN ROJI ROKE ROKS ROKY ROLE ROLF ROLL ROMA ROMP ROMS RONE RONG RONT RONZ ROOD ROOF ROOK ROOM ROON ROOP ROOS ROOT ROPE ROPY RORE RORT RORY ROSE ROST ROSY ROTA ROTE ROTI ROTL ROTO ROTS ROUE ROUL ROUM ROUP ROUT ROUX ROVE ROWS ROWT RUBE RUBS RUBY RUCK RUCS RUDD RUDE RUDS RUED RUER RUES RUFF RUGA RUGS RUIN RUKH RULE RULY RUME RUMP RUMS RUND RUNE RUNG RUNS RUNT RURP RURU RUSA RUSE RUSH RUSK RUST RUTH RUTS RYAL RYAS RYES RYFE RYKE RYND RYOT RYPE
SAAG SABE SABS SACK SACS SADE SADI SADO SADS SAFE SAFT SAGA SAGE SAGO SAGS SAGY SAIC SAID SAIL SAIM SAIN SAIR SAIS SAKE SAKI SALE SALL SALP SALS SALT SAMA SAME SAMP SAMS SAND SANE SANG SANK SANS SANT SAPS SARD SARI SARK SARS SASH SASS SATE SATI SAUL SAUT SAVE SAVS SAWN SAWS SAXE SAYS SCAB SCAD SCAG SCAM SCAN SCAR SCAT SCAW SCOG SCOP SCOT SCOW SCRY SCUD SCUG SCUL SCUM SCUP SCUR SCUT SCYE SEAL SEAM SEAN SEAR SEAS SEAT SECH SECO SECS SECT SEED SEEK SEEL SEEM SEEN SEEP SEER SEES SEGO SEGS SEIF SEIK SEIL SEIR SEIS SEKT SELD SELE SELF SELL SELS SEME SEMI SENA SEND SENE SENS SENT SEPS SEPT SERA SERE SERF SERK SERR SERS SESE SESH SESS SETA SETS SETT SEWN SEWS SEXT SEXY SEYS SHAD SHAG SHAH SHAM SHAN SHAT SHAW SHAY SHEA SHED SHES SHET SHEW SHIM SHIN SHIP SHIR SHIT SHIV SHMO SHOD SHOE SHOG SHOO SHOP SHOT SHOW SHRI SHUL SHUN SHUT SHWA SIAL SIBB SIBS SICE SICH SICK SICS SIDA SIDE SIDH SIEN SIES SIFT SIGH SIGN SIJO SIKA SIKE SILD SILE SILK SILL SILO SILT SIMA SIMI SIMP SIMS SIND SINE SING SINH SINK SINS SIPE SIPS SIRE SIRI SIRS SISS SIST SITE SITH SITS SITZ SIZE SIZY SJOE SKAG SKAS SKAT SKAW SKEE SKEG SKEN SKEO SKEP SKER SKET SKEW SKID SKIM SKIN SKIO SKIP SKIS SKIT SKOL SKRY SKUA SKUG SKYF SKYR SLAB SLAE SLAG SLAM SLAP SLAT SLAW SLAY SLEB SLED SLEE SLEW SLEY SLID SLIM SLIP SLIT SLOB SLOE SLOG SLOP SLOT SLOW SLUB SLUE SLUG SLUM SLUR SLUT SMEE SMEW SMIR SMIT SMOG SMUG SMUR SMUT SNAB SNAG SNAP SNAR SNAW SNEB SNED SNEE SNIB SNIG SNIP SNIT SNOB SNOD SNOG SNOT SNOW SNUB SNUG SNYE SOAK SOAP SOAR SOBA SOBS SOCA SOCK SOCS SODA SODS SOFA SOFT SOGS SOHO SOHS SOIL SOJA SOKE SOLA SOLD SOLE SOLI SOLO SOLS SOMA SOME SOMS SOMY SONE SONG SONS SOOK SOOL SOOM SOON SOOP SOOT SOPH SOPS SORA SORB SORD SORE SORI SORN SORT SOSS SOTH SOTS SOUK SOUL SOUM SOUP SOUR SOUS SOUT SOVS SOWF SOWL SOWM SOWN SOWP SOWS SOYA SOYS SPAE SPAG SPAM SPAN SPAR SPAS SPAT SPAW SPAY SPAZ SPEC SPED SPEK SPET SPEW SPIC SPIE SPIF SPIK SPIM SPIN SPIT SPIV SPOD SPOT SPRY SPUD SPUE SPUG SPUN SPUR SRIS STAB STAG STAP STAR STAT STAW STAY STED STEM STEN STEP STET STEW STEY STIE STIM STIR STOA STOB STOP STOT STOW STUB STUD STUM STUN STYE SUBA SUBS SUCH SUCK SUDD SUDS SUED SUER SUES SUET SUGH SUGO SUGS SUID SUIT SUKH SUKS SULK SULU SUMO SUMP SUMS SUMY SUNG SUNI SUNK SUNN SUNS SUPE SUPS SUQS SURA SURD SURE SURF SUSS SUSU SWAB SWAD SWAG SWAM SWAN SWAP SWAT SWAY SWEE SWEY SWIG SWIM SWIZ SWOB SWOP SWOT SWUM SYBO SYCE SYED SYEN SYES SYKE SYLI SYNC SYND SYNE SYPE SYPH
TAAL TABI TABS TABU TACE TACH TACK TACO TACT TADS TAED TAEL TAES TAGS TAHA TAHR TAIG TAIL TAIN TAIS TAIT TAKA TAKE TAKI TAKS TAKY TALA TALC TALE TALI TALK TALL TAME TAMP TAMS TANA TANE TANG TANH TANK TANS TAOS TAPA TAPE TAPS TAPU TARA TARE TARN TARO TARP TARS TART TASH TASK TASS TATE TATH TATS TATT TATU TAUS TAUT TAVA TAVS TAWA TAWS TAWT TAXA TAXI TAYS TEAD TEAK TEAL TEAM TEAR TEAS TEAT TECH TECS TEDS TEDY TEED TEEK TEEL TEEM TEEN TEER TEES TEFF TEFS TEGG TEGS TEGU TEHR TEIL TEIN TELA TELD TELE TELL TELS TELT TEME TEMP TEMS TEND TENE TENS TENT TEPA TERF TERM TERN TEST TETE TETH TETS TEWS TEXT THAE THAN THAR THAT THAW THEE THEM THEN THEW THEY THIG THIN THIO THIR THIS THON THOU THRO THRU THUD THUG THUS TIAN TIAR TICE TICH TICK TICS TIDE TIDS TIDY TIED TIER TIES TIFF TIFT TIGE TIGS TIKA TIKE TIKI TIKS TILE TILL TILS TILT TIME TINA TIND TINE TING TINK TINS TINT TINY TIPI TIPS TIPT TIRE TIRL TIRO TIRR TITE TITI TITS TIVY TIZZ TOAD TOBY TOCK TOCO TOCS TODS TODY TOEA TOED TOES TOEY TOFF TOFT TOFU TOGA TOGE TOGS TOHO TOIL TOIT TOKE TOKO TOLA TOLD TOLE TOLL TOLT TOLU TOMB TOME TOMO TOMS TONE TONG TONK TONS TONY TOOK TOOL TOOM TOON TOOT TOPE TOPH TOPI TOPO TOPS TORA TORC TORE TORI TORN TORO TORR TORS TORT TORY TOSA TOSE TOSH TOSS TOST TOTE TOTS TOUK TOUN TOUR TOUT TOWN TOWS TOWT TOWY TOYO TOYS TOZE TRAD TRAM TRAP TRAT TRAY TREE TREF TREK TRES TRET TREW TREY TREZ TRIE TRIG TRIM TRIN TRIO TRIP TROD TROG TRON TROP TROT TROW TROY TRUE TRUG TRYE TRYP TSAR TSKS TUAN TUBA TUBE TUBS TUCK TUFA TUFF TUFT TUGS TUIS TULE TUMP TUMS TUNA TUND TUNE TUNG TUNS TUNY TUPS TURD TURF TURK TURM TURN TUSH TUSK TUTS TUTU TUZZ TWAE TWAL TWAS TWAT TWAY TWEE TWIG TWIN TWIT TWOS TYDE TYED TYEE TYER TYES TYGS TYIN TYKE TYMP TYND TYNE TYPE TYPO TYPP TYPY TYRE TYRO TYTE TZAR
UDAL UDON UDOS UEYS UFOS UGHS UGLY UKES ULAN ULES ULEX ULNA ULUS ULVA UMBO UMMA UMPH UMPS UMPY UMRA UMUS UNAI UNAU UNBE UNCE UNCI UNCO UNDE UNDO UNDY UNIS UNIT UNTO UPAS UPBY UPDO UPGO UPON UPSY UPTA URAO URBS URDE URDS URDY UREA URES URGE URIC URNS URPS URSA URUS URVA USED USER USES UTAS UTES UTIS UTUS UVAE UVAS UVEA
VACS VADE VAES VAGI VAGS VAIL VAIN VAIR VALE VALI VAMP VANE VANG VANS VANT VARA VARE VARS VARY VASA VASE VAST VATS VATU VAUS VAUT VAVS VAWS VEAL VEEP VEER VEES VEGA VEGO VEHM VEIL VEIN VELA VELD VELE VELL VENA VEND VENT VERA VERB VERD VERS VERT VERY VEST VETO VETS VEXT VIAE VIAL VIAS VIBE VIBS VICE VIDE VIDS VIED VIER VIES VIEW VIGA VIGS VILD VILE VILL VIMS VINA VINE VINO VINS VINT VINY VIOL VIRE VIRL VISA VISE VITA VITE VIVA VIVE VIVO VIZY VLEI VLOG VOAR VOES VOID VOIP VOLA VOLE VOLK VOLS VOLT VORS VOTE VOWS VRIL VROT VROU VROW VUGG VUGH VUGS VULN VUMS
WAAC WABS WACK WADD WADE WADI WADS WADT WADY WAES WAFF WAFT WAGE WAGS WAID WAIF WAIL WAIN WAIR WAIS WAIT WAKA WAKE WAKF WALD WALE WALI WALK WALL WALY WAME WAND WANE WANG WANK WANS WANT WANY WAPS WAQF WARB WARD WARE WARK WARM WARN WARP WARS WART WARY WASE WASH WASP WAST WATE WATS WATT WAUK WAUL WAUR WAVE WAVY WAWA WAWE WAWL WAWS WAXY WAYS WEAK WEAL WEAN WEAR WEBS WEDS WEED WEEK WEEL WEEM WEEN WEEP WEER WEES WEET WEFT WEID WEIL WEIR WEKA WELD WELK WELL WELS WELT WEMB WEMS WENA WEND WENS WENT WEPT WERE WERO WERT WEST WETA WETS WEXE WEYS WHAE WHAM WHAP WHAT WHEE WHEN WHET WHEW WHEY WHID WHIG WHIM WHIN WHIO WHIP WHIR WHIT WHIZ WHOA WHOM WHOP WHOT WHOW WHUP WHYS WICE WICH WICK WIDE WIEL WIFE WIGS WIKI WILD WILE WILI WILL WILT WILY WIMP WIND WINE WING WINK WINN WINO WINS WINY WIPE WIRE WIRY WISE WISH WISP WISS WIST WITE WITH WITS WIVE WOAD WOCK WOES WOFS WOGS WOKE WOKS WOLD WOLF WOMB WONK WONS WONT WOOD WOOF WOOL WOON WOOS WOOT WOPS WORD WORE WORK WORM WORN WORT WOST WOTS WOVE WOWF WOWS WRAP WREN WRIT WUDS WUDU WULL WUSS WYCH WYES WYLE WYND WYNN WYNS WYTE
XRAY XYST
YAAR YABA YACK YADS YAFF YAGI YAGS YAHS YAKS YALD YALE YAMS YANG YANK YAPP YAPS YARD YARE YARK YARN YARR YATE YAUD YAUP YAWL YAWN YAWP YAWS YAWY YAYS YBET YEAD YEAH YEAN YEAR YEAS YEBO YECH YEDE YEED YEGG YELD YELK YELL YELM YELP YELT YENS YEPS YERD YERK YESK YEST YETI YETT YEUK YEVE YEWS YGOE YIDS YIKE YILL YINS YIPE YIPS YIRD YIRK YIRR YITE YLEM YLKE YMPE YMPT YOBS YOCK YODE YODH YODS YOGA YOGH YOGI YOKE YOKS YOLD YOLK YOMP YOND YONI YONT YOOF YOOP YORE YORK YORP YOUK YOUR YOUS YOWE YOWL YOWS YUAN YUCA YUCH YUCK YUFT YUGA YUGS YUKE YUKO YUKS YUKY YULE YUMP YUNX YUPS YURT YUTZ YUZU YWIS
ZACK ZAGS ZANY ZAPS ZARF ZARI ZATI ZEAL ZEAS ZEBU ZEDS ZEES ZEIN ZEKS ZELS ZEPS ZERK ZERO ZEST ZETA ZEZE ZHOS ZIFF ZIGS ZILA ZILL ZIMB ZINC ZINE ZING ZINS ZIPS ZITE ZITI ZITS ZIZZ ZOBO ZOBU ZOEA ZOIC ZOLS ZONA ZONE ZONK ZOOM ZOON ZOOS ZOOT ZORI ZOUK ZULU ZUPA ZURF ZYGA ZYME ZZZS
submitted by OB8O to 4CHR [link] [comments]


2020.07.29 22:39 BringATwenty Mormonism Was Started During Uncertain Colonial Times As a Secret Military Strategy to Save the Doomed "USA". It Worked. Since Then Mormonism Has Nepotistically Grown To Become The Modern USA's $150 Billion Dollar Fraud. This Original Chain of Events Is Outlined In The Following 42 Critical Points.

  1. After the 8 year long revolutionary war ended in 1783, the "United States of America" still faltered countless times in the following decades. Easterly landlocked colonial territories outlined on paper as "States" could not come together as "One Nation". Different military's, militias, brotherhoods, factions, factions within factions, slavery and counterfeit money bred constant chaos. For many periods over those following decades attacks from Great Britain, Spain, France, Mexico and the warring Indian tribes they supplied meant the easterly landlocked territories were doomed to be conquered by one nation or another. (Even Russiahad a trade presence on the west coast) Year in and year out, every day and every night, every primitive, easterly landlocked, colonial territory's survival was threatened. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
  2. The Nation needed to expand West to save Freedom but the unorganized military was spread too thin. Some settlers made progress with peaceful Native American tribes yet wagon trains of settlers who dared to venture West were still violently slaughtered by warring Indian tribes. Young, old, no one was spared. Stories of the violent massacres kept many settlers held up in the landlocked territories. Other's fled back to England. Still others came. (1) (2)
  3. The guiding hand of a centuries old Scottish Brotherhood can be seen throughout the USA's founding decades. Known founding fathers George Washington (1732-1799), Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), Paul Revere (1735-1818), John Hancock (1736-1793) and others were members of the Brotherhood's different factions within factions spread across the territories. Hidden history reveals so much more about these founding fathers than many know. For example, George Washington still owned 300 slaves upon his death. Paul Revere was a master of metals and an entrepreneur and his clients included the US Government (1) (2). Dynamic Oligarch, Governor, Inventor and swimmer Benjamin Franklin (1) (2) might one day go down in history as a colonial version of Bruce Wayne/Batman. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5))
  4. Faraway on the other side of the globe, during the same time the revolutionary war was going on, England's Captain James Cook, a global explorer and close associate of the Brotherhood, led the discovery of what would become Hawaii. He saw firsthand how polygamy could grow a nation quickly. Word of the native island people and their bounty of ancestral legends, ocean going stories and treasure traveled around the globe and throughout the Brotherhood's ranks on both sides of the Atlantic. Among the native's Cook and his crew were first revered as immortals but about a year later Cook was attacked and killed as an imposter. This did not phase other explorers and visitors. Travel by ship to the islands became so familiar during colonial times that when conquering Hawaiian King Kamehameha passed away his drunken son LihoLiho, who carried the King's title in name only, traded away a substantial portion of the island's treasures for a yacht built by a Salem, Massachusetts family prominent in seafaring, politics and the military (Crowninshield). After the yacht reached the islands in 1820 it was extensively and expensively remodeled under LihoLiho's orders. It suspiciously sank in a Kauai bay less than two years later and LihoLiho suspiciously died on a peculiar, ill fated trip to Great Britain in 1824. (1) (2) (3)
  5. In the failing US Territories of the late 1700's and early 1800's, patriotic leaders prayed and planned and searched for ways to save the failed Nation. Guidance was sought. Plans were constantly suggested and evaluated. Different members of the Brotherhood secretly suggested laying the foundation for a massive religious following built by polygamy to successfully pave the way West so the failed Nation could expand and be saved.
  6. During this critical time, at least 14 stories of different people having similar "religious" experiences popped up around the territories. None of them created a great following. (1)
  7. During the 34 years spanning 1787-1821, the US's first 24 easterly landlocked states were formed on paper. However, 61% of these states were formed during the first 16 years of that period. For the last 18 years of that period, the pace of forming states had come to a violent halt with only 7 being formed. The chaotic territory known on paper as the "USA" was on the doorstep of imminent failure and what would become a quarter century blight where only two more states would be formed on paper. (1821-1845) (1)
  8. That 1821-1845 time period coincidentally also covers 99.9% of the time that the published, foundational beginnings of "Mormonism" occurred. 1820 is the published year of Joseph Smith's First Vision. 1847 is the published year Brigham Young strategically ordered his west coast bound following to suddenly stop in Mexico Territory at an enormous salt filled lake smack dab in the center of the American continent's untamed West. Even though it was in Mexico Territory at the time, the location of this Great Salt Lake was perfectly centralized in the continent's West and could serve as the doorstep to how the West could be won. Over the next 20 years after Brigham Young's arrival an estimated 60,000-70,000 faithful pioneers would follow. Many were followers of Mormonism. Many practiced polygamy. Many would be sent in all direction of the West to faithfully colonize strategic territories and pave the way for the Nation's armies (1).
  9. For nearly 195 years, Mormonism has surreptitiously weaved historical claims about a man named "Martin Harris" (1783-1875). Mormonism claims Harris was a humble farmer who's greedy wife left him after he mortgaged their family farm to faithfully pay today's equivalent of hundreds of thousands of dollars for the first publishing of the boy Joseph Smith's "The Book of Mormon" and that shortly after that economic failure and other critical founding roles Harris lost faith in Mormonism but later rejoined Mormonism in Utah at the very end of his 92 year long life. (1)) (2) Hidden history reveals that these claims about Harris ARE EXACTLY HOW HE WANTED IT. The purveyors of Mormonism go to great lengths to perpetuate these myths about Harris even today. If you don't accept the boy "Joseph Smith" as a child prophet who grew into a man prophet, Harris' purveyors of Mormonism want you to hate Joseph Smith as an impossible genius-con artist-pedophile so you fail to see the truth of who Harris really was and what Harris really did.
  10. "History is written by the victor" and the past two centuries demonstrate that Harris definitely was the victor. This is because in reality Harris' "greedy wife" "Lucy" was actually his child cousin. Yes she was a child. Yes she was his first cousin. She was 15 and he was 25 when he forced her to marry him. Yet within Mormonism story after story leaves this critical detail out. Additionally for one reason or another Lucy became partially deaf over the next 20 years. There is also at least one report that in addition to sexually abusing this child Harris also physically abused her. This is an indication of Harris' proclivity to control children. Harris eventually fathered 6 children) through Lucy's nubile womb. 28 years later and after being physically separated from Harris for years, Lucy suspiciously died at the age of 42. Weeks later then 52 year old Harris married 21 year old Caroline Young. A niece of Brigham Young. He fathered 7 children through here nubile womb.
  11. Like the Crowninshield's and other influential families throughout critical parts of the chaotic New England territories, The Harris family was also wealthy, well connected and zealously patriotic. With his father Nathan Harris, and his brothers (Emer and Preserved) Martin controlled hundreds of productive acres in the Palmyra, New York region with complex operations producing a river of revenue from livestock and linen. Martin Harris' father Nathan Harris and mother Rhoda Lapham Harris originally moved the Harris family to the Palmyra, New York area in 1796, 20 years before the poverty stricken Smith's would arrive practically on Harris' doorstep. (1) (For the Sum of $3000 By Susan Easton Black)
  12. The white linen Martin produced was so exceptional that he won several awards for it. Since Mormonism's beginning days, the wearing of multiple layers of white clothing has been expected of followers. For decades manufacturing this clothing and selling it to followers has been a secret, multi-million dollar industry for Mormonism. The white clothing includes under garments for daily wear by males and females as well as outer garments for wear in private ceremonies. (For the Sum of $3000 By Susan Easton Black)
  13. Harris was a zealous patriot. At 29 years old, four years after forcing his child cousin to marry him, he began regularly leaving his life of power, wealth and marriage as a "Harris" to regularly fight during the 3 years of "The War of 1812". ( "The War of 1812" was actually "The War of 1812-1815".) Harris was recognized as a leader and an honored war veteran at war's end. As an honored war veteran, is it safe to suggest that he became familiar with killing in the name of patriotism as wars require of brave men and women (1) ?
  14. Harris was a convincing story teller. He once got people to donate money for what he claimed would be used to support the Christian Greeks fighting the Turks. He also claimed Jesus appeared to him in the form of a deer and walked with him for a couple miles. He also claimed an incident regarding a flickering candle was the work of the devil. (1) (2))
  15. After the War of 1812, the well respected, wealthy, influential, honored, 33 year old Martin Harris was nominated to be "Road Overseer" in the Palmyra region. A position he controlled for the next 7 years. This included the 7 years it took to finally construct New England's Eerie Canal.
  16. The dynamic Harris was an influential supporter of the Eerie Canal and it's possible route. Harris made sure the route passed by he and his father's lands. This would expand their river of cash and operations to the eastern territories in exponential ways. This river of cash would be used by many to finance business and patriotic endeavors in the failed Nation. (1) Prior to the Eerie Canal "New York" was way down on the list of in-demand territorial ports. Historical economist's acknowledge that the Eerie Canal made New York the leading port and global economic powerhouse that it has been for nearly two centuries.
  17. The boy Joseph Smith Jr. was born December 23, 1805. The poverty stricken Smith family relocated 8 times in the chaotic New England area during Joseph's Smith Jr.'s first 10 years. If they were in Europe they may have been referred to as "gypsys". With Great Britain's latest attack and eventual retreat underway after the War of 1812, the Smith family with it's many sons of working age moved to Palmyra in 1816 in search of work on the controversial, to be built "Eerie Canal". (To this day, published Mormon history acts as if the Eerie Canal doesn't exist.)
  18. During these colonial decades, almost 1 in 5 children did not survive their first year. The Smith family was no exception. Although some children are not listed here in 1816 the living and to-be-born members of Smith family included Joseph Smith Sr. (father, 45, d. 1840), Lucy Mack Smith (Mother, 41, d. 1856), Alvin Smith (son, 18, d. 1823), Hyrum Smith (son, 16, d. 1844), Sophronia (daughter, 13, d. 1876), Joseph Smith Jr. (son, 10, d. 1844), Samuel Smith (son, 8 d. 1844), William Smith (son, 5, d. 1894), Katherine Smith (daughter, 3, d. 1900), Don Carlos (son, newborn, d. 1841). Lucy Smith would be born 5 years later, d. 1882). Shortly after arriving in the Palmyra region, the poverty stricken, uneducated Smith family took over a primitive cabin less than 1 mile from Harris's lands that bordered the future route of Eerie Canal. This was the Smith family's 8th move in Joseph Smith Jr.'s 10 years. After moving so many times, they absolutely moved here to gain work on the Eerie Canal. This move would be the families last. Mother Lucy Smith would bury all but one Smith male during the first 25 years of Mormonism's beginnings. (1)
  19. Harris was 22 years older than Joseph Smith. As a well known, wealthy local and "Road Overseer" who regularly hired local boys and men to work on his own lands, Harris met the Smith family with it's many sons around 1816 when Smith's moved to Palmyra. Harris did not live within 1 mile of the Smith family for 8 or 10 years before meeting them as Mormon history weaves. Harris likely learned of the arrival of the Smith family within days of their arrival to Palmyra through longtime Palmyra residents including the resident who owned the tiny primitive cabin the large Smith family moved into. (For the Sum of $3000 By Susan Easton Black, map, page 6)
  20. Within published Mormonism there are also conflicting accounts spanning three violent chaotic colonial years when Martin Harris met "Joseph Smith". Some accounts claim it was 1824, some claim it was 1827. This would have been when Joseph Smith was 18...or 21. Another ignored, critical discrepancy. (1) (2)
  21. In the early 1800, as years of chaotic uncertainty unfolded, for one reason or another Harris appropriated the Brotherhood's patriotic goals for the Nation for himself. Among other things he knew of the other religious experiences told by others around the territories. (Harris would eventually become related by marriage to one of the story tellers). Harris saw that a young mans voice was needed for a following to catch on. For that, the powerful Harris chose a young many to be a voice of his own. This voice was that of 18 year old Alvin Smith). However, as Harris laid the ground work for his patriotic cause over the next 4 years, headstrong Alvin resisted. Because Hyrum was also older than 18 after those 4 years and like Alvin would have been privy to some of the Brotherhood's publishing's and ceremonies that Harris borrowed (or stole) from, Harris skipped choosing Hyrum as a potential "voice" and chose Joseph, the dynamic, naïve, uneducated, friendly, 14 year old boy who walked with a limp. This is now the year 1820 and is when the boy Joseph's published stories begin. 4 years later though, Alvin was engaged to be married and saw potential for the Smith's without their dependence on the Harris' for work. He began to interfere with the powerful Harris' grooming and temptations of the impressionable Joseph. With the fate of the Nation at stake and no more time to find another voice amid Joseph's waiverings growing ever more critical as he too approached the age of 18, the wealthy, zealous, altruistic, powerful, patriotic Harris ordered Alvin's murder . It was just four and a half weeks before Joseph's 18th birthday. After Alvin's death, Harris used threats towards other Smith family members to ensure Joseph would not waiver. Fearing for the rest of his family and now 3 year old little Lucy, and with no "911" to call and no one else to come to their aid, 17 year old Joseph and the rest of the Smith family would become Harris' emotional hostages for the next two decades. Just like Harris had done with his child cousin who he forced to marry him, Harris had gained control of the boy Joseph and the Smiths.
  22. The powerful Harris, his father and their faction, ("The Men Who Visit") continued freely catalyzing Mormonism and the Book of Mormon from the Brotherhood's materials. They also used materials from forced and unforced sources including authors of 6 previous publications (#3). In their zeal, with their power, influence and use of violence they were able to greatly reduce the prominence of the publications they borrowed and stole from.
  23. Mormonism's publishings indicate "The Book of Mormon" was originally a 30-60 pound heavy stack of gold plates discovered in a sealed box under a boulder and that the box also included a sword (The Sword of Laban), a spherical compass (The Liahona) and a breast plate with a pair of primitive glasses attached to it. Publishing's indicate that translation of the engraved writings on the plates occurred by Joseph Smith without him looking at the plates but instead by Joseph wearing the Urim and Thummim and iterating out loud the words that appeared to him. If he didn't want to use the plates, he could also use a black stone he had been led to. If he didn't want to use the black stone, he could use a white stone he already had. (1). A scribe who was either his first wife Emma, Martin Harris, David Whitmer or Oliver Cowdery. (2)
  24. Harris' reputation for being wealthy was well known enough that in 1833 he was sued and jailed for $1000 (what some would say is today's economic equivalent of $500,000) by a young woman for publicly saying she had a "bastard child". In that day women couldn't sue a man alone so the suit was brought by a male friend of the woman. Harris posted bail and left. The suit was quietly dismissed under the claim that the woman was already "scandalous" prior to her claims against the well known Harris. (Link available by download through google search "the imprisonment of Martin Harris").
  25. During the following years under Harris control, naive Joseph resisted at times. Joseph tried to break free at times. Joseph sought funding for his own militia. Joseph spoke in code to his militia. As a victim, out of survival or as an eventual participant, Joseph absolutely made mistakes.
  26. A city was built around Mormonism. Harris and his endless river of cash and connections from the Eerie Canal was never far away. Day by day Harris' barges on the Eerie Canal sent one fortune of goods after another to the eastern territories. At the port of New York, the empty barges were loaded with immigrants grateful to have some place inland to go. Stories of the American Bible gave them something to believe in. For one reason or another, many of these early male, female and child immigrants were from Scotland...
  27. Harris and his faction forced Joseph to claim that 24 different angels appeared to Joseph including Adam, Moses, Noah and other biblical characters.
  28. Harris' self-fulfilling prophecy involving patriotically well-connected aristocrats Charles Anthon, Luther Bradish and Samuel L. Mitchell. Note that Bradish was a literary agent of profound, well educated early American author James Fenimore Cooper. Cooper is the author of "The Leatherstocking Tales", "The Last of the Mohicans" and other known titles. Cooper was also a midshipman in the US Navy who was very familiar with the working of ocean vessels. Like Benjamin Franklin, Cooper was known for his intellect and occasionally mischievous creativity. (1) "The Book of Mormon" contains ocean going stories (1) (2). Like Harris, Bradish also fought in the "War of 1812". These are just a few of the critical circles of influence needed to catalyze something like "The Book of Mormon" and Mormonism and to see it through to fruition while minimizing and eliminating obstacles along the way. These are the kind of critical circles of influence that a naive, uneducated, poor, handicapped, gypsy boy from a new-to-the-neighborhood family just did not have.
  29. In 1844, with thousands of immigrant and American born followers spread across many New England territories and elsewhere, Harris secretly ordered Joseph to began preparations to lead Mormonism's followers from Nauvoo into the West to save the failed USA. Instead, the naive Joseph believed he could save the failed USA by becoming President of the USA himself. Believing he was finally too powerful for Harris to kill him, Joseph publicly announced his campaign for President of the USA. With no time to spare, the zealous, patriotic Harris immediately ordered the murder of Joseph Smith and two of his three remaining brothers. Within weeks of Joseph's presidential announcement Joseph and his older brother Hyrum were arrested and killed within days (June 27, 1844). With thousands of followers, his own militia and the bounties of an entire growing city at his fingertips, Joseph allowed himself to be arrested believing that he and Harris would reconcile. After Joseph and Hyrum's murder however, in an insidious taunt to other less heinous factions who's attempts failed to gain a following and to remove all obstacles at seeing his own faction's plans through, Harris ordered the murder of younger brother Samuel Smith 33 days later (July 30, 1844). The number 33 is significant within the Brotherhood. For one reason or another Harris spared the Smith females (Mother Lucy Mack, daughter's Sophronia, Katherine, Lucy) and the youngest living Smith son at the time William. In all, 6 Smith male family members including Alvin (murder), Joseph Smith Sr. (suspicious), Don Carlos (illness), Hyrum (murder), Joseph (murder) and Samuel (murder) died during the Lord's careful "Restoration of the Gospel".
  30. After Joseph's unbelievable, tragic and violent murder Mormonism split into multiple groups with several different leaders emerging. Some believed in polygamy some didn't. 1) Brigham eventually led the majority into the West. 2) Joseph's family and first wife Emma stayed in Nauvoo. 3) Other followers went to Philadelphia. 4) Others went on a ship to sail to the continent's west coast with Samuel Brannan (who pulled a page from Benjamin Franklin's book of propaganda and sensationalism and started the gold rush of 1849 by publishing reports of gold in the area in eastern markets. Brannan is recognized by many as the west coast's first millionaire although not from "gold". Like many others in Mormonism's founding days publishings indicate Brannan was also eventually "exiled" from Mormonism). 5) Other's followed James Strange (Strange was Harris' back up plan in case Brigham was killed or failed. Strange led a following to northern territories on the Great Lakes. Harris was never far away from Strange. Strange eventually also produced "writings" from plates he claimed he was led to. (Harris is noted within Mormon history as being responsible for "losing" 116 pages of writings Joseph produced). Strange was murdered 9 years after Brigham Young stopped his following at the salt lake in the center of the West and the West was won.
  31. During this period other people would mysteriously die or disappear. Harris and/or people claiming to be associated with the US Government were never far away. (1)
  32. Within two years of Mormonism conquering the West, US states started being formed on paper again. This ended the quarter century blight that began shortly before Mormonism's founding days. (1)
  33. When it came time for Brigham Young to commission a statue to commemorate Mormonism's settling of "Salt Lake City" and to be placed at the entrance to his expansive "Utah Territory" property instead of choosing an angel Moroni, a figure of Joseph, or anything related to Mormonism he chose an eagle on top of a 5-pointed star. This statue commemorating the "Gate for the Eagle" became known as "The Eagles Gate". These symbols acknowledged the conquering of the American continent's West by Freemasonry under the banner of the USA. Although the "Eagle" has always been highly visible, the "Star" is seldom mentioned publicly but is clearly visible in person and in many images. This Star is also used throughout Mormonism's early ecclesiastical buildings. Note that in the 1970's some groups with nefarious purposes adopted the 5-pointed star ("pentagram") as a purported satanic symbol however among different uses related to the USA, it had been used for over a century to also represent the rising Eastern Star.
  34. Between his 15 year old child cousin bride Lucy (10 years his junior) and his mysterious bride Caroline (29 years his junior), Martin Harris fathered 13 living children through the two females nubile wombs. Today there are 13 secret corporations that control Mormonism's $100 billion dollars.
  35. Images of Martin Harris in his later years (1870) show him holding a staff with a serpant's head. 116 years before, Benjamin Franklin used a serpant as patriotic imagery (1754).
  36. Although images of just about everyone else in Mormonism's founding days exist, Mormonism maintains that no images of Joseph Smith exist. Instead, they elect to use handsome cartoon renderings of Joseph Smith that generate millions of dollars in revenue every year. This is while Mormonism also ignores reports of at least one photograph and forensic science that indicates a less sensationalized image of Joseph Smith. Naturally, this image also demonstrates more family semblance with Alvin Smith than the cartoon images do.
  37. Of all figures in Mormonism's beginnings the grave marker of the forgotten Martin Harris is by far the most substantial. Joseph Smith doesn't even have his own marker. His is shared with his brother Hyrum and his first wife Emma even though Emma married a non-Mormon on Joseph Smith's birthday 3 years later. Mormonism goes to great lengths to hide Emma's marriage to a non-mormon after Joseph's murder especially with the critical role of Emma that has been weaved throughout Mormonism and the translation.
  38. Polygamy openly continued for over 60 years before being renounced so Utah could officially become a State. Polygamy continued privately for decades and continues still in many ways due to Mormonism maintaining spiritual polygamy.
  39. Mormonism openly practicing racism until 1978.
  40. Nepotistic connections through blood or marriage existed throughout Mormonism's founding days with the 3 witnesses and the 8 witnesses and continues today. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5). Note that of the "3 Witnesses" Martin Harris was one. One was also a "Whitmer". 4 of the "8 Witnesses" were Whitmer's. "Hyrum Page" of the "8 Witnesses" was married to a Whitmer. Joseph Smith's father and two brothers make up the rest of the "8". All most all of the witnesses eventually left Mormonism but out of fear of retribution from Harris' faction they never recanted their stories or roles in Mormonism.
  41. Today Mormonism is a nepotistic (1) (2) (3) (4) $150 Billion tax-free corporation masquerading as a "religion". It owns influential roles in companies you know and use everyday. $100 Billion of that ill-gotten wealth places Mormonism among the top 5 of the largest cash reserves in the USA. Additional billions are held in real estate development (one example), media control (NBC-UTAH), the USA's largest cattle producer, the USA's largest nut producer, Universities in Utah, Idaho and Hawaii (BYU) and billions of dollars more in tax free capital raising buildings disguised as chapels, temples and other "ecclesiastical" buildings. Even though Mormonism continues to have lie after lie revealed about it, it maintains disturbing nepotistic control over the State of Utah and it's political, legal, municipal, educational and media offices as well as it's global at-risk "volunteer" force of tens of thousands of teenagers).
  42. If Mormonism doesn't seem like an insidious regime yet this link should make it perfectly clear.
This all means that Today, Utah's population of 3 million people and millions of others around the globe are subject to a nepotistic, evil regime and are in DESPERATE need of rescue by the Federal Government.
MR. PRESIDENT PLEASE HELP US!
"Save Utah Save The Nation"
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2020.07.26 21:03 portlane Bill Oman (March 29, 1943 - June 20, 2020)

BILL OMAN
March 29, 1943 - June 20, 2020
On Saturday, June 20, 2020, Bill Oman, loving husband and father, passed away at age 77.
Bill was born on March 29, 1943 in Forest Grove, Oregon to Emerson and Mary (Mead) Oman. He graduated from Moses Lake High School and attended a year at Brigham Young University before joining the United States Marine Corps from 1966 to 1969. Bill excelled in the Marine Corps, where he received a Rifle Expert Badge, Pistol Expert Badge, as well as a Good Conduct Medal and National Defense Services Medal.
Bill met Tita Suzara on the Fourth of July, 1965. She was attending nursing school at the University of Southern California. After dating for one weekend, Bill received a 30-day leave and they drove to Las Vegas, Nevada, where they got married at the Clark County Courthouse. This would be the beginning of an incredible journey and partnership that lasted nearly 55 years.
Bill joined his father in Tri Cities, Washington and opened up an insurance agency with State Farm in 1976, before relocating to Vancouver in 1980. His State Farm office became a successful family venture as his wife, Tita, ran the office and his children all spent time at some point working in the family business. He was able to retire early after two decades of selling insurance.
Bill enjoyed woodworking, spending time with his family at big get togethers, traveling, and pushing the buttons on his favorite Keno machines at Chinook Winds Casino. He was known for his quick wit, infectious laugh, and ability to talk to anyone about anything. At family get togethers, you could always count on hearing his voice get louder and louder to rise above the rest, which is an Oman trait. He would then come over the top with a hilarious take or, at least, drop a, “Can I tell you something?”
Bill was preceded in death by his father, Emerson; mother, Mary; and son-in-law, Loren.
He is survived by his wife, Tita; his four children, Mylene, Carl, Bill, and Randy; his brother, Kent; his two sisters, Carlene and Sandra; his grandchildren, Tiana, Emily, Kyle, Jared, Mattea, Harrison, Tommy, Joe, DJ, Hannah, Ava, and William; and several cousins, nieces, and nephews.
A military funeral service will be held on July 31st, 2020, at Willamette National Cemetery.
Please sign his guest book @ www.columbian.com/obits
source: http://obits.columbian.com/obituaries/columbian/obituary.aspx?n=bill-oman&pid=196548627
submitted by portlane to deadpeoplepdx [link] [comments]


2020.07.23 16:25 VoxChiasmus Utah's Mormonism is The Deep State

TL;DR - A Colonial Military Cult Disguised As a Religion Saved the Failed USA Then Nepotistically Grew To Become The Modern USA's $100 Billion Dollar Regime: 42 Facts.

  1. After the 8 year long revolutionary war ended in 1783, the "United States of America" still faltered countless times in the coming decades. Easterly landlocked colonial territories outlined on paper as "States" could not come together as "One Nation". Different military's, militias, brotherhoods, factions, factions within factions, slavery and counterfeit money bred constant chaos. For many periods over those following decades attacks from Great Britain, Spain, France, Mexico and the warring Indian tribes they supplied meant the easterly landlocked territories were doomed to be conquered by one nation or another. (Even Russia had a trade presence on the west coast) Year in and year out, every day and every night, every primitive, easterly landlocked, colonial territory's survival was threatened. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
  2. The Nation needed to expand West to save Freedom but the unorganized military was spread too thin. Some settlers made progress with peaceful Native American tribes yet wagon trains of settlers who dared to venture West were still violently slaughtered by warring Indian tribes. Young, old, no one was spared. Stories of the violent massacres kept many settlers held up in the landlocked territories. Other's fled back to England. Still others came. (1) (2)
  3. The guiding hand of a centuries old Scottish Brotherhood can be seen throughout the USA's founding decades. Known founding fathers George Washington (1732-1799), Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), Paul Revere (1735-1818), John Hancock (1736-1793) and others were members of the Brotherhood's different factions within factions spread across the territories. Hidden history reveals so much more about these founding fathers than many know. For example, George Washington still owned 300 slaves upon his death. Paul Revere was a master of metals and an entrepreneur and his clients included the US Government (1) (2). Dynamic Oligarch, Governor, Inventor and swimmer Benjamin Franklin (1) (2) might one day go down in history as a colonial version of Bruce Wayne/Batman. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5))
  4. Faraway on the other side of the globe, during the same time the revolutionary war was going on, England's Captain James Cook, a global explorer and close associate of the Brotherhood, led the discovery of what would become Hawaii. He saw firsthand how polygamy could grow a nation quickly. Word of the native island people and their bounty of ancestral legends, ocean going stories and treasure traveled around the globe and throughout the Brotherhood's ranks on both sides of the Atlantic. Among the native's Cook and his crew were first revered as immortals but about a year later Cook was attacked and killed as an imposter. This did not phase other explorers and visitors. Travel by ship to the islands became so familiar during colonial times that when conquering Hawaiian King Kamehameha passed away his drunken son LihoLiho, who carried the King's title in name only, traded away a substantial portion of the island's treasures for a yacht built by a Salem, Massachusetts family prominent in seafaring, politics and the military (Crowninshield). After the yacht reached the islands in 1820 it was extensively and expensively remodeled under LihoLiho's orders. It suspiciously sank in a Kauai bay less than two years later and LihoLiho suspiciously died on a peculiar, ill fated trip to Great Britain in 1824. (1) (2) (3)
  5. In the failing US Territories of the late 1700's and early 1800's, patriotic leaders prayed and planned and searched for ways to save the failed Nation. Guidance was sought. Plans were constantly suggested and evaluated. Different members of the Brotherhood secretly suggested laying the foundation for a massive religious following built by polygamy to successfully pave the way West so the failed Nation could expand and be saved.
  6. During this critical time, at least 14 stories of different people having similar "religious" experiences popped up around the territories. None of them created a great following. (1)
  7. During the 34 years spanning 1787-1821, the US's first 24 easterly landlocked states were formed on paper. However, 61% of these states were formed during the first 16 years of that period. For the last 18 years of that period, the pace of forming states had come to a violent halt with only 7 being formed. The chaotic territory known on paper as the "USA" was on the doorstep of imminent failure and what would become a quarter century blight where only two more states would be formed on paper. (1821-1845) (1)
  8. That 1821-1845 time period coincidentally also covers 99.9% of the time that the published, foundational beginnings of "Mormonism" occurred. 1820 is the published year of Joseph Smith's First Vision. 1847 is the published year Brigham Young strategically ordered his west coast bound following to suddenly stop in Mexico Territory at an enormous salt filled lake smack dab in the center of the American continent's untamed West. Even though it was in Mexico Territory at the time, the location of this Great Salt Lake was perfectly centralized in the continent's West and could serve as the doorstep to how the West could be won. Over the next 20 years after Brigham Young's arrival an estimated 60,000-70,000 faithful pioneers would follow. Many were followers of Mormonism. Many practiced polygamy. Many would be sent in all direction of the West to faithfully colonize strategic territories and pave the way for the Nation's armies (1).
  9. For nearly 195 years, Mormonism has surreptitiously weaved historical claims about a man named "Martin Harris" (1783-1875). Mormonism claims Harris was a humble farmer who's greedy wife left him after he mortgaged their family farm to faithfully pay today's equivalent of hundreds of thousands of dollars for the first publishing of the boy Joseph Smith's "The Book of Mormon" and that shortly after that economic failure and other critical founding roles Harris lost faith in Mormonism but later rejoined Mormonism in Utah at the very end of his 92 year long life. (1)) (2) Hidden history reveals that these claims about Harris ARE EXACTLY HOW HE WANTED IT. The purveyors of Mormonism go to great lengths to perpetuate these myths about Harris even today. If you don't accept the boy "Joseph Smith" as a child prophet who grew into a man prophet, Harris' purveyors of Mormonism want you to hate Joseph Smith as an impossible genius-con artist-pedophile so you fail to see the truth of who Harris really was and what Harris really did.
  10. "History is written by the victor" and the past two centuries demonstrate that Harris definitely was the victor. This is because in reality Harris' "greedy wife" "Lucy" was actually his child cousin. Yes she was a child. Yes she was his first cousin. She was 15 and he was 25 when he forced her to marry him. Yet within Mormonism story after story leaves this critical detail out. Additionally for one reason or another Lucy became partially deaf over the next 20 years. There is also at least one report that in addition to sexually abusing this child Harris also physically abused her. This is an indication of Harris' proclivity to control children. Harris eventually fathered 6 children) through Lucy's nubile womb. 28 years later and after being physically separated from Harris for years, Lucy suspiciously died at the age of 42. Weeks later then 52 year old Harris married 21 year old Caroline Young. A niece of Brigham Young. He fathered 7 children through here nubile womb.
  11. Like the Crowninshield's and other influential families throughout critical parts of the chaotic New England territories, The Harris family was also wealthy, well connected and zealously patriotic. With his father Nathan Harris, and his brothers (Emer and Preserved) Martin controlled hundreds of productive acres in the Palmyra, New York region with complex operations producing a river of revenue from livestock and linen. Martin Harris' father Nathan Harris and mother Rhoda Lapham Harris originally moved the Harris family to the Palmyra, New York area in 1796, 20 years before the poverty stricken Smith's would arrive practically on Harris' doorstep. (1) (For the Sum of $3000 By Susan Easton Black)
  12. The white linen Martin produced was so exceptional that he won several awards for it. Since Mormonism's beginning days, the wearing of multiple layers of white clothing has been expected of followers. For decades manufacturing this clothing and selling it to followers has been a secret, multi-million dollar industry for Mormonism. The white clothing includes under garments for daily wear by males and females as well as outer garments for wear in private ceremonies. (For the Sum of $3000 By Susan Easton Black)
  13. Harris was a zealous patriot. At 29 years old, four years after forcing his child cousin to marry him, he began regularly leaving his life of power, wealth and marriage as a "Harris" to regularly fight during the 3 years of "The War of 1812". ( "The War of 1812" was actually "The War of 1812-1815".) Harris was recognized as a leader and an honored war veteran at war's end. As an honored war veteran, is it safe to suggest that he became familiar with killing in the name of patriotism as wars require of brave men and women (1) ?
  14. Harris was a convincing story teller. He once got people to donate money for what he claimed would be used to support the Christian Greeks fighting the Turks. He also claimed Jesus appeared to him in the form of a deer and walked with him for a couple miles. He also claimed an incident regarding a flickering candle was the work of the devil. (1) (2))
  15. After the War of 1812, the well respected, wealthy, influential, honored, 33 year old Martin Harris was nominated to be "Road Overseer" in the Palmyra region. A position he controlled for the next 7 years. This included the 7 years it took to finally construct New England's Eerie Canal.
  16. The dynamic Harris was an influential supporter of the Eerie Canal and it's possible route. Harris made sure the route passed by he and his father's lands. This would expand their river of cash and operations to the eastern territories in exponential ways. This river of cash would be used by many to finance business and patriotic endeavors in the failed Nation. (1) Prior to the Eerie Canal "New York" was way down on the list of in-demand territorial ports. Historical economist's acknowledge that the Eerie Canal made New York the leading port and global economic powerhouse that it has been for nearly two centuries.
  17. The boy Joseph Smith Jr. was born December 23, 1805. The poverty stricken Smith family relocated 8 times in the chaotic New England area during Joseph's Smith Jr.'s first 10 years. If they were in Europe they may have been referred to as "gypsys". With Great Britain's latest attack and eventual retreat underway after the War of 1812, the Smith family with it's many sons of working age moved to Palmyra in 1816 in search of work on the controversial, to be built "Eerie Canal". (To this day, published Mormon history acts as if the Eerie Canal doesn't exist.)
  18. During these colonial decades, almost 1 in 5 children did not survive their first year. The Smith family was no exception. Although some children are not listed here in 1816 the living and to-be-born members of Smith family included Joseph Smith Sr. (father, 45, d. 1840), Lucy Mack Smith (Mother, 41, d. 1856), Alvin Smith (son, 18, d. 1823), Hyrum Smith (son, 16, d. 1844), Sophronia (daughter, 13, d. 1876), Joseph Smith Jr. (son, 10, d. 1844), Samuel Smith (son, 8 d. 1844), William Smith (son, 5, d. 1894), Katherine Smith (daughter, 3, d. 1900), Don Carlos (son, newborn, d. 1841). Lucy Smith would be born 5 years later, d. 1882). Shortly after arriving in the Palmyra region, the poverty stricken, uneducated Smith family took over a primitive cabin less than 1 mile from Harris's lands that bordered the future route of Eerie Canal. This was the Smith family's 8th move in Joseph Smith Jr.'s 10 years. After moving so many times, they absolutely moved here to gain work on the Eerie Canal. This move would be the families last. Mother Lucy Smith would bury all but one Smith male during the first 25 years of Mormonism's beginnings. (1)
  19. Harris was 22 years older than Joseph Smith. As a well known, wealthy local and "Road Overseer" who regularly hired local boys and men to work on his own lands, Harris met the Smith family with it's many sons around 1816 when Smith's moved to Palmyra. Harris did not live within 1 mile of the Smith family for 8 or 10 years before meeting them as Mormon history weaves. Harris likely learned of the arrival of the Smith family within days of their arrival to Palmyra through longtime Palmyra residents including the resident who owned the tiny primitive cabin the large Smith family moved into. (For the Sum of $3000 By Susan Easton Black, map, page 6)
  20. Within published Mormonism there are also conflicting accounts spanning three violent chaotic colonial years when Martin Harris met "Joseph Smith". Some accounts claim it was 1824, some claim it was 1827. This would have been when Joseph Smith was 18...or 21. Another ignored, critical discrepancy. (1) (2)
  21. In the early 1800, as years of chaotic uncertainty unfolded, for one reason or another Harris appropriated the Brotherhood's patriotic goals for the Nation for himself. Among other things he knew of the other religious experiences told by others around the territories. (Harris would eventually become related by marriage to one of the story tellers). Harris saw that a young mans voice was needed for a following to catch on. For that, the powerful Harris chose a young many to be a voice of his own. This voice was that of 18 year old Alvin Smith). However, as Harris laid the ground work for his patriotic cause over the next 4 years, headstrong Alvin resisted. Because Hyrum was also older than 18 after those 4 years and like Alvin would have been privy to some of the Brotherhood's publishing's and ceremonies that Harris borrowed (or stole) from, Harris skipped choosing Hyrum as a potential "voice" and chose Joseph, the dynamic, naïve, uneducated, friendly, 14 year old boy who walked with a limp. This is now the year 1820 and is when the boy Joseph's published stories begin. 4 years later though, Alvin was engaged to be married and saw potential for the Smith's without their dependence on the Harris' for work. He began to interfere with the powerful Harris' grooming and temptations of the impressionable Joseph. With the fate of the Nation at stake and no more time to find another voice amid Joseph's waiverings growing ever more critical as he too approached the age of 18, the wealthy, zealous, altruistic, powerful, patriotic Harris ordered Alvin's murder . It was just four and a half weeks before Joseph's 18th birthday. After Alvin's death, Harris used threats towards other Smith family members to ensure Joseph would not waiver. Fearing for the rest of his family and now 3 year old little Lucy, and with no "911" to call and no one else to come to their aid, 17 year old Joseph and the rest of the Smith family would become Harris' emotional hostages for the next two decades. Just like Harris had done with his child cousin who he forced to marry him, Harris had gained control of the boy Joseph and the Smiths.
  22. The powerful Harris, his father and their faction, ("The Men Who Visit") continued freely catalyzing Mormonism and the Book of Mormon from the Brotherhood's materials. They also used materials from forced and unforced sources including authors of 6 previous publications (#3). In their zeal, with their power, influence and use of violence they were able to greatly reduce the prominence of the publications they borrowed and stole from.
  23. Mormonism's publishings indicate "The Book of Mormon" was originally a 30-60 pound heavy stack of gold plates discovered in a sealed box under a boulder and that the box also included a sword (The Sword of Laban), a spherical compass (The Liahona) and a breast plate with a pair of primitive glasses attached to it. Publishing's indicate that translation of the engraved writings on the plates occurred by Joseph Smith without him looking at the plates but instead by Joseph wearing the Urim and Thummim and iterating out loud the words that appeared to him. If he didn't want to use the plates, he could also use a black stone he had been led to. If he didn't want to use the black stone, he could use a white stone he already had. (1). A scribe who was either his first wife Emma, Martin Harris, David Whitmer or Oliver Cowdery. (2)
  24. Harris' reputation for being wealthy was well known enough that in 1833 he was sued and jailed for $1000 (what some would say is today's economic equivalent of $500,000) by a young woman for publicly saying she had a "bastard child". In that day women couldn't sue a man alone so the suit was brought by a male friend of the woman. Harris posted bail and left. The suit was quietly dismissed under the claim that the woman was already "scandalous" prior to her claims against the well known Harris. (Link available by download through google search "the imprisonment of Martin Harris").
  25. During the following years under Harris control, naive Joseph resisted at times. Joseph tried to break free at times. Joseph sought funding for his own militia. Joseph spoke in code to his militia. As a victim, out of survival or as an eventual participant, Joseph absolutely made mistakes.
  26. A city was built around Mormonism. Harris and his endless river of cash and connections from the Eerie Canal was never far away. Day by day Harris' barges on the Eerie Canal sent one fortune of goods after another to the eastern territories. At the port of New York, the empty barges were loaded with immigrants grateful to have some place inland to go. Stories of the American Bible gave them something to believe in. For one reason or another, many of these early male, female and child immigrants were from Scotland...
  27. Harris and his faction forced Joseph to claim that 24 different angels appeared to Joseph including Adam, Moses, Noah and other biblical characters.
  28. Harris' self-fulfilling prophecy involving patriotically well-connected aristocrats Charles Anthon, Luther Bradish and Samuel L. Mitchell. Note that Bradish was a literary agent of profound, well educated early American author James Fenimore Cooper. Cooper is the author of "The Leatherstocking Tales", "The Last of the Mohicans" and other known titles. Cooper was also a midshipman in the US Navy who was very familiar with the working of ocean vessels. Like Benjamin Franklin, Cooper was known for his intellect and occasionally mischievous creativity. (1) "The Book of Mormon" contains ocean going stories (1) (2). Like Harris, Bradish also fought in the "War of 1812". These are just a few of the critical circles of influence needed to catalyze something like "The Book of Mormon" and Mormonism and to see it through to fruition while minimizing and eliminating obstacles along the way. These are the kind of critical circles of influence that a naive, uneducated, poor, handicapped, gypsy boy from a new-to-the-neighborhood family just did not have.
  29. In 1844, with thousands of immigrant and American born followers spread across many New England territories and elsewhere, Harris secretly ordered Joseph to began preparations to lead Mormonism's followers from Nauvoo into the West to save the failed USA. Instead, the naive Joseph believed he could save the failed USA by becoming President of the USA himself. Believing he was finally too powerful for Harris to kill him, Joseph publicly announced his campaign for President of the USA. With no time to spare, the zealous, patriotic Harris immediately ordered the murder of Joseph Smith and two of his three remaining brothers. Within weeks of Joseph's presidential announcement Joseph and his older brother Hyrum were arrested and killed within days (June 27, 1844). With thousands of followers, his own militia and the bounties of an entire growing city at his fingertips, Joseph allowed himself to be arrested believing that he and Harris would reconcile. After Joseph and Hyrum's murder however, in an insidious taunt to other less heinous factions who's attempts failed to gain a following and to remove all obstacles at seeing his own faction's plans through, Harris ordered the murder of younger brother Samuel Smith 33 days later (July 30, 1844). The number 33 is significant within the Brotherhood. For one reason or another Harris spared the Smith females (Mother Lucy Mack, daughter's Sophronia, Katherine, Lucy) and the youngest living Smith son at the time William. In all, 6 Smith male family members including Alvin (murder), Joseph Smith Sr. (suspicious), Don Carlos (illness), Hyrum (murder), Joseph (murder) and Samuel (murder) died during the Lord's careful "Restoration of the Gospel".
  30. After Joseph's unbelievable, tragic and violent murder Mormonism split into multiple groups with several different leaders emerging. Some believed in polygamy some didn't. 1) Brigham eventually led the majority into the West. 2) Joseph's family and first wife Emma stayed in Nauvoo. 3) Other followers went to Philadelphia. 4) Others went on a ship to sail to the continent's west coast with Samuel Brannan (who pulled a page from Benjamin Franklin's book of propaganda and sensationalism and started the gold rush of 1849 by publishing reports of gold in the area in eastern markets. Brannan is recognized by many as the west coast's first millionaire although not from "gold". Like many others in Mormonism's founding days publishings indicate Brannan was also eventually "exiled" from Mormonism). 5) Other's followed James Strange (Strange was Harris' back up plan in case Brigham was killed or failed. Strange led a following to northern territories on the Great Lakes. Harris was never far away from Strange. Strange eventually also produced "writings" from plates he claimed he was led to. (Harris is noted within Mormon history as being responsible for "losing" 116 pages of writings Joseph produced). Strange was murdered 9 years after Brigham Young stopped his following at the salt lake in the center of the West and the West was won.
  31. During this period other people would mysteriously die or disappear. Harris and/or people claiming to be associated with the US Government were never far away. (1)
  32. Within two years of Mormonism conquering the West, US states started being formed on paper again. This ended the quarter century blight that began shortly before Mormonism's founding days. (1)
  33. When it came time for Brigham Young to commission a statue to commemorate Mormonism's settling of "Salt Lake City" and to be placed at the entrance to his expansive "Utah Territory" property instead of choosing an angel Moroni, a figure of Joseph, or anything related to Mormonism he chose an eagle on top of a 5-pointed star. This statue commemorating the "Gate for the Eagle" became known as "The Eagles Gate". These symbols acknowledged the conquering of the American continent's West by Freemasonry under the banner of the USA. Although the "Eagle" has always been highly visible, the "Star" is seldom mentioned publicly but is clearly visible in person and in many images. This Star is also used throughout Mormonism's early ecclesiastical buildings. Note that in the 1970's some groups with nefarious purposes adopted the 5-pointed star ("pentagram") as a purported satanic symbol however among different uses related to the USA, it had been used for over a century to also represent the rising Eastern Star.
  34. Between his 15 year old child cousin bride Lucy (10 years his junior) and his mysterious bride Caroline (29 years his junior), Martin Harris fathered 13 living children through the two females nubile wombs. Today there are 13 secret corporations that control Mormonism's $100 billion dollars.
  35. Images of Martin Harris in his later years (1870) show him holding a staff with a serpant's head. 116 years before, Benjamin Franklin used a serpant as patriotic imagery (1754).
  36. Although images of just about everyone else in Mormonism's founding days exist, Mormonism maintains that no images of Joseph Smith exist. Instead, they elect to use handsome cartoon renderings of Joseph Smith that generate millions of dollars in revenue every year. This is while Mormonism also ignores reports of at least one photograph and forensic science that indicates a less sensationalized image of Joseph Smith. Naturally, this image also demonstrates more family semblance with Alvin Smith than the cartoon images do.
  37. Of all figures in Mormonism's beginnings the grave marker of the forgotten Martin Harris is by far the most substantial. Joseph Smith doesn't even have his own marker. His is shared with his brother Hyrum and his first wife Emma even though Emma married a non-Mormon on Joseph Smith's birthday 3 years later. Mormonism goes to great lengths to hide Emma's marriage to a non-mormon after Joseph's murder especially with the critical role of Emma that has been weaved throughout Mormonism and the translation.
  38. Polygamy openly continued for over 60 years before being renounced so Utah could officially become a State. Polygamy continued privately for decades and continues still in many ways due to Mormonism maintaining spiritual polygamy.
  39. Mormonism openly practicing racism until 1978.
  40. Nepotistic connections through blood or marriage existed throughout Mormonism's founding days with the 3 witnesses and the 8 witnesses and continues today. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5). Note that of the "3 Witnesses" Martin Harris was one. One was also a "Whitmer". 4 of the "8 Witnesses" were Whitmer's. "Hyrum Page" of the "8 Witnesses" was married to a Whitmer. Joseph Smith's father and two brothers make up the rest of the "8". All most all of the witnesses eventually left Mormonism but out of fear of retribution from Harris' faction they never recanted their stories or roles in Mormonism.
  41. Today Mormonism is a nepotistic (1) (2) (3) (4) $150 Billion tax-free corporation masquerading as a "religion". It owns influential roles in companies you know and use everyday. $100 Billion of that ill-gotten wealth places Mormonism among the top 5 of the largest cash reserves in the USA. Additional billions are held in real estate development (one example), media control (NBC-UTAH), the USA's largest cattle producer, the USA's largest nut producer, Universities in Utah, Idaho and Hawaii (BYU) and billions of dollars more in tax free capital raising buildings disguised as chapels, temples and other "ecclesiastical" buildings. Even though Mormonism continues to have lie after lie revealed about it, it maintains disturbing nepotistic control over the State of Utah and it's political, legal, municipal, educational and media offices as well as it's global at-risk "volunteer" force of tens of thousands of teenagers).
  42. If Mormonism doesn't seem like an insidious regime yet this link should make it perfectly clear.

This all means that Today, Utah's population of 3 million people and millions of others around the globe are subject to a nepotistic, evil regime and are in DESPERATE need of rescue by the Federal Government.
MR. PRESIDENT PLEASE HELP US!
"Save Utah Save The Nation"
submitted by VoxChiasmus to conspiracy [link] [comments]


2020.07.22 23:44 VoxChiasmus 42 Reasons A Colonial Military Cult Disguised As a Religion Saved the Failed USA Then Nepotistically Grew To Become A Modern Evil Regime With $100 Billion At It's Fingertips.

  1. After the 8 year long revolutionary war ended in 1783, the "United States of America" still faltered countless times in the coming decades. Easterly landlocked colonial territories outlined on paper as "States" could not come together as "One Nation". Different military's, militias, brotherhoods, factions, factions within factions, slavery and counterfeit money bred constant chaos. For many periods over those following decades attacks from Great Britain, Spain, France, Mexico and the warring Indian tribes they supplied meant the easterly landlocked territories were doomed to be conquered by one nation or another. (Even Russia had a trade presence on the west coast) Year in and year out, every day and every night, every primitive, easterly landlocked, colonial territory's survival was threatened. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

  1. The Nation needed to expand West to save Freedom but the unorganized military was spread too thin. Some settlers made progress with peaceful Native American tribes yet wagon trains of settlers who dared to venture West were still violently slaughtered by warring Indian tribes. Young, old, no one was spared. Stories of the violent massacres kept many settlers held up in the landlocked territories. Other's fled back to England. Still others came. (1) (2)

  1. The guiding hand of a centuries old Scottish Brotherhood can be seen throughout the USA's founding decades. Known founding fathers George Washington (1732-1799), Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), Paul Revere (1735-1818), John Hancock (1736-1793) and others were members of the Brotherhood's different factions within factions spread across the territories. Hidden history reveals so much more about these founding fathers than many know. For example, George Washington still owned 300 slaves upon his death. Paul Revere was a master of metals and an entrepreneur and his clients included the US Government (1) (2). Dynamic Oligarch, Governor, Inventor and swimmer Benjamin Franklin (1) (2) might one day go down in history as a colonial version of Bruce Wayne/Batman. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5))

  1. Faraway on the other side of the globe, during the same time the revolutionary war was going on, England's Captain James Cook, a global explorer and close associate of the Brotherhood, led the discovery of what would become Hawaii. He saw firsthand how polygamy could grow a nation quickly. Word of the native island people and their bounty of ancestral legends, ocean going stories and treasure traveled around the globe and throughout the Brotherhood's ranks on both sides of the Atlantic. Among the native's Cook and his crew were first revered as immortals but about a year later Cook was attacked and killed as an imposter. This did not phase other explorers and visitors. Travel by ship to the islands became so familiar during colonial times that when conquering Hawaiian King Kamehameha passed away his drunken son LihoLiho, who carried the King's title in name only, traded away a substantial portion of the island's treasures for a yacht built by a Salem, Massachusetts family prominent in seafaring, politics and the military (Crowninshield). After the yacht reached the islands in 1820 it was extensively and expensively remodeled under LihoLiho's orders. It suspiciously sank in a Kauai bay less than two years later and LihoLiho suspiciously died on a peculiar, ill fated trip to Great Britain in 1824. (1) (2) (3)

  1. In the failing US Territories of the late 1700's and early 1800's, patriotic leaders prayed and planned and searched for ways to save the failed Nation. Guidance was sought. Plans were constantly suggested and evaluated. Different members of the Brotherhood secretly suggested laying the foundation for a massive religious following built by polygamy to successfully pave the way West so the failed Nation could expand and be saved.

  1. During this critical time, at least 14 stories of different people having similar "religious" experiences popped up around the territories. None of them created a great following. (1)

  1. During the 34 years spanning 1787-1821, the US's first 24 easterly landlocked states were formed on paper. However, 61% of these states were formed during the first 16 years of that period. For the last 18 years of that period, the pace of forming states had come to a violent halt with only 7 being formed. The chaotic territory known on paper as the "USA" was on the doorstep of imminent failure and what would become a quarter century blight where only two more states would be formed on paper. (1821-1845) (1)

  1. That 1821-1845 time period coincidentally also covers 99.9% of the time that the published, foundational beginnings of "Mormonism" occurred. 1820 is the published year of Joseph Smith's First Vision. 1847 is the published year Brigham Young strategically ordered his west coast bound following to suddenly stop in Mexico Territory at an enormous salt filled lake smack dab in the center of the American continent's untamed West. Even though it was in Mexico Territory at the time, the location of this Great Salt Lake was perfectly centralized in the continent's West and could serve as the doorstep to how the West could be won. Over the next 20 years after Brigham Young's arrival an estimated 60,000-70,000 faithful pioneers would follow. Many were followers of Mormonism. Many practiced polygamy. Many would be sent in all direction of the West to faithfully colonize strategic territories and pave the way for the Nation's armies (1).

  1. For nearly 195 years, Mormonism has surreptitiously weaved historical claims about a man named "Martin Harris" (1783-1875). Mormonism claims Harris was a humble farmer who's greedy wife left him after he mortgaged their family farm to faithfully pay today's equivalent of hundreds of thousands of dollars for the first publishing of the boy Joseph Smith's "The Book of Mormon" and that shortly after that economic failure and other critical founding roles Harris lost faith in Mormonism but later rejoined Mormonism in Utah at the very end of his 92 year long life. (1)) (2) Hidden history reveals that these claims about Harris ARE EXACTLY HOW HE WANTED IT. The purveyors of Mormonism go to great lengths to perpetuate these myths about Harris even today. If you don't accept the boy "Joseph Smith" as a child prophet who grew into a man prophet, Harris' purveyors of Mormonism want you to hate Joseph Smith as an impossible genius-con artist-pedophile so you fail to see the truth of who Harris really was and what Harris really did.

  1. "History is written by the victor" and the past two centuries demonstrate that Harris definitely was the victor. This is because in reality Harris' "greedy wife" "Lucy" was actually his child cousin. Yes she was a child. Yes she was his first cousin. She was 15 and he was 25 when he forced her to marry him. Yet within Mormonism story after story leaves this critical detail out. Additionally for one reason or another Lucy became partially deaf over the next 20 years. There is also at least one report that in addition to sexually abusing this child Harris also physically abused her. This is an indication of Harris' proclivity to control children. Harris eventually fathered 6 children) through Lucy's nubile womb. 28 years later and after being physically separated from Harris for years, Lucy suspiciously died at the age of 42. Weeks later then 52 year old Harris married 21 year old Caroline Young. A niece of Brigham Young. He fathered 7 children through here nubile womb.

  1. Like the Crowninshield's and other influential families throughout critical parts of the chaotic New England territories, The Harris family was also wealthy, well connected and zealously patriotic. With his father Nathan Harris, and his brothers (Emer and Preserved) Martin controlled hundreds of productive acres in the Palmyra, New York region with complex operations producing a river of revenue from livestock and linen. Martin Harris' father Nathan Harris and mother Rhoda Lapham Harris originally moved the Harris family to the Palmyra, New York area in 1796, 20 years before the poverty stricken Smith's would arrive practically on Harris' doorstep. (1) (For the Sum of $3000 By Susan Easton Black)

  1. The white linen Martin produced was so exceptional that he won several awards for it. Since Mormonism's beginning days, the wearing of multiple layers of white clothing has been expected of followers. For decades manufacturing this clothing and selling it to followers has been a secret, multi-million dollar industry for Mormonism. The white clothing includes under garments for daily wear by males and females as well as outer garments for wear in private ceremonies. (For the Sum of $3000 By Susan Easton Black)

  1. Harris was a zealous patriot. At 29 years old, four years after forcing his child cousin to marry him, he began regularly leaving his life of power, wealth and marriage as a "Harris" to regularly fight during the 3 years of "The War of 1812". ( "The War of 1812" was actually "The War of 1812-1815".) Harris was recognized as a leader and an honored war veteran at war's end. As an honored war veteran, is it safe to suggest that he became familiar with killing in the name of patriotism as wars require of brave men and women (1) ?

  1. Harris was a convincing story teller. He once got people to donate money for what he claimed would be used to support the Christian Greeks fighting the Turks. He also claimed Jesus appeared to him in the form of a deer and walked with him for a couple miles. He also claimed an incident regarding a flickering candle was the work of the devil. (1) (2))

  1. After the War of 1812, the well respected, wealthy, influential, honored, 33 year old Martin Harris was nominated to be "Road Overseer" in the Palmyra region. A position he controlled for the next 7 years. This included the 7 years it took to finally construct New England's Eerie Canal.

  1. The dynamic Harris was an influential supporter of the Eerie Canal and it's possible route. Harris made sure the route passed by he and his father's lands. This would expand their river of cash and operations to the eastern territories in exponential ways. This river of cash would be used by many to finance business and patriotic endeavors in the failed Nation. (1) Prior to the Eerie Canal "New York" was way down on the list of in-demand territorial ports. Historical economist's acknowledge that the Eerie Canal made New York the leading port and global economic powerhouse that it has been for nearly two centuries.

  1. The boy Joseph Smith Jr. was born December 23, 1805. The poverty stricken Smith family relocated 8 times in the chaotic New England area during Joseph's Smith Jr.'s first 10 years. If they were in Europe they may have been referred to as "gypsys". With Great Britain's latest attack and eventual retreat underway after the War of 1812, the Smith family with it's many sons of working age moved to Palmyra in 1816 in search of work on the controversial, to be built "Eerie Canal". (To this day, published Mormon history acts as if the Eerie Canal doesn't exist.)

  1. During these colonial decades, almost 1 in 5 children did not survive their first year. The Smith family was no exception. Although some children are not listed here in 1816 the living and to-be-born members of Smith family included Joseph Smith Sr. (father, 45, d. 1840), Lucy Mack Smith (Mother, 41, d. 1856), Alvin Smith (son, 18, d. 1823), Hyrum Smith (son, 16, d. 1844), Sophronia (daughter, 13, d. 1876), Joseph Smith Jr. (son, 10, d. 1844), Samuel Smith (son, 8 d. 1844), William Smith (son, 5, d. 1894), Katherine Smith (daughter, 3, d. 1900), Don Carlos (son, newborn, d. 1841). Lucy Smith would be born 5 years later, d. 1882). Shortly after arriving in the Palmyra region, the poverty stricken, uneducated Smith family took over a primitive cabin less than 1 mile from Harris's lands that bordered the future route of Eerie Canal. This was the Smith family's 8th move in Joseph Smith Jr.'s 10 years. After moving so many times, they absolutely moved here to gain work on the Eerie Canal. This move would be the families last. Mother Lucy Smith would bury all but one Smith male during the first 25 years of Mormonism's beginnings. (1)

  1. Harris was 22 years older than Joseph Smith. As a well known, wealthy local and "Road Overseer" who regularly hired local boys and men to work on his own lands, Harris met the Smith family with it's many sons around 1816 when Smith's moved to Palmyra. Harris did not live within 1 mile of the Smith family for 8 or 10 years before meeting them as Mormon history weaves. Harris likely learned of the arrival of the Smith family within days of their arrival to Palmyra through longtime Palmyra residents including the resident who owned the tiny primitive cabin the large Smith family moved into. (For the Sum of $3000 By Susan Easton Black, map, page 6)

  1. Within published Mormonism there are also conflicting accounts spanning three violent chaotic colonial years when Martin Harris met "Joseph Smith". Some accounts claim it was 1824, some claim it was 1827. This would have been when Joseph Smith was 18...or 21. Another ignored, critical discrepancy. (1) (2)

  1. In the early 1800, as years of chaotic uncertainty unfolded, for one reason or another Harris appropriated the Brotherhood's patriotic goals for the Nation for himself. Among other things he knew of the other religious experiences told by others around the territories. (Harris would eventually become related by marriage to one of the story tellers). Harris saw that a young mans voice was needed for a following to catch on. For that, the powerful Harris chose a young many to be a voice of his own. This voice was that of 18 year old Alvin Smith). However, as Harris laid the ground work for his patriotic cause over the next 4 years, headstrong Alvin resisted. Because Hyrum was also older than 18 after those 4 years and like Alvin would have been privy to some of the Brotherhood's publishing's and ceremonies that Harris borrowed (or stole) from, Harris skipped choosing Hyrum as a potential "voice" and chose Joseph, the dynamic, naïve, uneducated, friendly, 14 year old boy who walked with a limp. This is now the year 1820 and is when the boy Joseph's published stories begin. 4 years later though, Alvin was engaged to be married and saw potential for the Smith's without their dependence on the Harris' for work. He began to interfere with the powerful Harris' grooming and temptations of the impressionable Joseph. With the fate of the Nation at stake and no more time to find another voice amid Joseph's waiverings growing ever more critical as he too approached the age of 18, the wealthy, zealous, altruistic, powerful, patriotic Harris ordered Alvin's murder . It was just four and a half weeks before Joseph's 18th birthday. After Alvin's death, Harris used threats towards other Smith family members to ensure Joseph would not waiver. Fearing for the rest of his family and now 3 year old little Lucy, and with no "911" to call and no one else to come to their aid, 17 year old Joseph and the rest of the Smith family would become Harris' emotional hostages for the next two decades. Just like Harris had done with his child cousin who he forced to marry him, Harris had gained control of the boy Joseph and the Smiths.

  1. The powerful Harris, his father and their faction, ("The Men Who Visit") continued freely catalyzing Mormonism and the Book of Mormon from the Brotherhood's materials. They also used materials from forced and unforced sources including authors of 6 previous publications (#3). In their zeal, with their power, influence and use of violence they were able to greatly reduce the prominence of the publications they borrowed and stole from.

  1. Mormonism's publishings indicate "The Book of Mormon" was originally a 30-60 pound heavy stack of gold plates discovered in a sealed box under a boulder and that the box also included a sword (The Sword of Laban), a spherical compass (The Liahona) and a breast plate with a pair of primitive glasses attached to it. Publishing's indicate that translation of the engraved writings on the plates occurred by Joseph Smith without him looking at the plates but instead by Joseph wearing the Urim and Thummim and iterating out loud the words that appeared to him. If he didn't want to use the plates, he could also use a black stone he had been led to. If he didn't want to use the black stone, he could use a white stone he already had. (1). A scribe who was either his first wife Emma, Martin Harris, David Whitmer or Oliver Cowdery. (2)

  1. Harris' reputation for being wealthy was well known enough that in 1833 he was sued and jailed for $1000 (what some would say is today's economic equivalent of $500,000) by a young woman for publicly saying she had a "bastard child". In that day women couldn't sue a man alone so the suit was brought by a male friend of the woman. Harris posted bail and left. The suit was quietly dismissed under the claim that the woman was already "scandalous" prior to her claims against the well known Harris. (Link available by download through google search "the imprisonment of Martin Harris").

  1. During the following years under Harris control, naive Joseph resisted at times. Joseph tried to break free at times. Joseph sought funding for his own militia. Joseph spoke in code to his militia. As a victim, out of survival or as an eventual participant, Joseph absolutely made mistakes.

  1. A city was built around Mormonism. Harris and his endless river of cash and connections from the Eerie Canal was never far away. Day by day Harris' barges on the Eerie Canal sent one fortune of goods after another to the eastern territories. At the port of New York, the empty barges were loaded with immigrants grateful to have some place inland to go. Stories of the American Bible gave them something to believe in. For one reason or another, many of these early male, female and child immigrants were from Scotland...

  1. Harris and his faction forced Joseph to claim that 24 different angels appeared to Joseph including Adam, Moses, Noah and other biblical characters.

  1. Harris' self-fulfilling prophecy involving patriotically well-connected aristocrats Charles Anthon, Luther Bradish and Samuel L. Mitchell. Note that Bradish was a literary agent of profound, well educated early American author James Fenimore Cooper. Cooper is the author of "The Leatherstocking Tales", "The Last of the Mohicans" and other known titles. Cooper was also a midshipman in the US Navy who was very familiar with the working of ocean vessels. Like Benjamin Franklin, Cooper was known for his intellect and occasionally mischievous creativity. (1) "The Book of Mormon" contains ocean going stories (1) (2). Like Harris, Bradish also fought in the "War of 1812". These are just a few of the critical circles of influence needed to catalyze something like "The Book of Mormon" and Mormonism and to see it through to fruition while minimizing and eliminating obstacles along the way. These are the kind of critical circles of influence that a naive, uneducated, poor, handicapped, gypsy boy from a new-to-the-neighborhood family just did not have.

  1. In 1844, with thousands of immigrant and American born followers spread across many New England territories and elsewhere, Harris secretly ordered Joseph to began preparations to lead Mormonism's followers from Nauvoo into the West to save the failed USA. Instead, the naive Joseph believed he could save the failed USA by becoming President of the USA himself. Believing he was finally too powerful for Harris to kill him, Joseph publicly announced his campaign for President of the USA. With no time to spare, the zealous, patriotic Harris immediately ordered the murder of Joseph Smith and two of his three remaining brothers. Within weeks of Joseph's presidential announcement Joseph and his older brother Hyrum were arrested and killed within days (June 27, 1844). With thousands of followers, his own militia and the bounties of an entire growing city at his fingertips, Joseph allowed himself to be arrested believing that he and Harris would reconcile. After Joseph and Hyrum's murder however, in an insidious taunt to other less heinous factions who's attempts failed to gain a following and to remove all obstacles at seeing his own faction's plans through, Harris ordered the murder of younger brother Samuel Smith 33 days later (July 30, 1844). The number 33 is significant within the Brotherhood. For one reason or another Harris spared the Smith females (Mother Lucy Mack, daughter's Sophronia, Katherine, Lucy) and the youngest living Smith son at the time William. In all, 6 Smith male family members including Alvin (murder), Joseph Smith Sr. (suspicious), Don Carlos (illness), Hyrum (murder), Joseph (murder) and Samuel (murder) died during the Lord's careful "Restoration of the Gospel".

  1. After Joseph's unbelievable, tragic and violent murder Mormonism split into multiple groups with several different leaders emerging. Some believed in polygamy some didn't. 1) Brigham eventually led the majority into the West. 2) Joseph's family and first wife Emma stayed in Nauvoo. 3) Other followers went to Philadelphia. 4) Others went on a ship to sail to the continent's west coast with Samuel Brannan (who pulled a page from Benjamin Franklin's book of propaganda and sensationalism and started the gold rush of 1849 by publishing reports of gold in the area in eastern markets. Brannan is recognized by many as the west coast's first millionaire although not from "gold". Like many others in Mormonism's founding days publishings indicate Brannan was also eventually "exiled" from Mormonism). 5) Other's followed James Strange (Strange was Harris' back up plan in case Brigham was killed or failed. Strange led a following to northern territories on the Great Lakes. Harris was never far away from Strange. Strange eventually also produced "writings" from plates he claimed he was led to. (Harris is noted within Mormon history as being responsible for "losing" 116 pages of writings Joseph produced). Strange was murdered 9 years after Brigham Young stopped his following at the salt lake in the center of the West and the West was won.

  1. During this period other people would mysteriously die or disappear. Harris and/or people claiming to be associated with the US Government were never far away. (1)

  1. Within two years of Mormonism conquering the West, US states started being formed on paper again. This ended the quarter century blight that began shortly before Mormonism's founding days. (1)

  1. When it came time for Brigham Young to commission a statue to commemorate Mormonism's settling of "Salt Lake City" and to be placed at the entrance to his expansive "Utah Territory" property instead of choosing an angel Moroni, a figure of Joseph, or anything related to Mormonism he chose an eagle on top of a 5-pointed star. This statue commemorating the "Gate for the Eagle" became known as "The Eagles Gate". These symbols acknowledged the conquering of the American continent's West by Freemasonry under the banner of the USA. Although the "Eagle" has always been highly visible, the "Star" is seldom mentioned publicly but is clearly visible in person and in many images. This Star is also used throughout Mormonism's early ecclesiastical buildings. Note that in the 1970's some groups with nefarious purposes adopted the 5-pointed star ("pentagram") as a purported satanic symbol however among different uses related to the USA, it had been used for over a century to also represent the rising Eastern Star.

  1. Between his 15 year old child cousin bride Lucy (10 years his junior) and his mysterious bride Caroline (29 years his junior), Martin Harris fathered 13 living children through the two females nubile wombs. Today there are 13 secret corporations that control Mormonism's $100 billion dollars.

  1. Images of Martin Harris in his later years (1870) show him holding a staff with a serpant's head. 116 years before, Benjamin Franklin used a serpant as patriotic imagery (1754).

  1. Although images of just about everyone else in Mormonism's founding days exist, Mormonism maintains that no images of Joseph Smith exist. Instead, they elect to use handsome cartoon renderings of Joseph Smith that generate millions of dollars in revenue every year. This is while Mormonism also ignores reports of at least one photograph and forensic science that indicates a less sensationalized image of Joseph Smith. Naturally, this image also demonstrates more family semblance with Alvin Smith than the cartoon images do.

  1. Of all figures in Mormonism's beginnings the grave marker of the forgotten Martin Harris is by far the most substantial. Joseph Smith doesn't even have his own marker. His is shared with his brother Hyrum and his first wife Emma even though Emma married a non-Mormon on Joseph Smith's birthday 3 years later. Mormonism goes to great lengths to hide Emma's marriage to a non-mormon after Joseph's murder especially with the critical role of Emma that has been weaved throughout Mormonism and the translation.

  1. Polygamy openly continued for over 60 years before being renounced so Utah could officially become a State. Polygamy continued privately for decades and continues still in many ways due to Mormonism maintaining spiritual polygamy.

  1. Mormonism openly practicing racism until 1978.

  1. Nepotistic connections through blood or marriage existed throughout Mormonism's founding days with the 3 witnesses and the 8 witnesses and continues today. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5). Note that of the "3 Witnesses" Martin Harris was one. One was also a "Whitmer". 4 of the "8 Witnesses" were Whitmer's. "Hyrum Page" of the "8 Witnesses" was married to a Whitmer. Joseph Smith's father and two brothers make up the rest of the "8". All most all of the witnesses eventually left Mormonism but out of fear of retribution from Harris' faction they never recanted their stories or roles in Mormonism.

  1. Today Mormonism is a nepotistic (1) (2) (3) (4) $150 Billion tax-free corporation masquerading as a "religion". It owns influential roles in companies you know and use everyday. $100 Billion of that ill-gotten wealth places Mormonism among the top 5 of the largest cash reserves in the USA. Additional billions are held in real estate development (one example), media control (NBC-UTAH), the USA's largest cattle producer, the USA's largest nut producer, Universities in Utah, Idaho and Hawaii (BYU) and billions of dollars more in tax free capital raising buildings disguised as chapels, temples and other "ecclesiastical" buildings. Even though Mormonism continues to have lie after lie revealed about it, it maintains disturbing nepotistic control over the State of Utah and it's political, legal, municipal, educational and media offices as well as it's global at-risk "volunteer" force of tens of thousands of teenagers).

  1. If Mormonism doesn't seem like an insidious regime yet this link should make it perfectly clear.

There's Only One Option for "What Happens Now?":
The boy Joseph Smith WAS a victim and his participation in Mormonism was out of survival as these 42 reasons reveal. This means that today, Utah's population of 3 million people and millions of others around the globe are subject to a nepotistic, evil regime and are in DESPERATE need of federal intervention. IT should immediately begin by seeing a Federal presence in Utah NOW.
MR. PRESIDENT PLEASE HELP US. SAVE UTAH, SAVE THE NATION.

As a Nation, as the "USA", we owe a national reverence to victims of the Eradication of the Native Americans, victims of Slavery and victims of Mormonism. We also owe it to these victims to continue courageously making this Nation the best it can be.

Thank you to the many invisible contributors who's brave research over the decades is linked in this post. Your efforts are not lost on me.

Remember that not all conspirators within Mormonism's nepotistic leadership may be there willingly. Like Alvin, the boy Joseph, Hyrum, Samuel and so many other victims along the way, their actions may be because their lives or the lives of their loved ones have also been threatened...it's in there actions now that we will know the truth about them.
GOD HELP US ALL.
-MJ
aka "Vox Chiasmus"
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2020.06.27 17:25 complexityspeculator Working on descriptive narrative of a cybernetic version of a Babylonian ritual

The Reductionist Subroutines of the Presupposition
The roiling mass of engorged flesh, undulating with semi-familiar forms of faces or genitals cresting and folding, the groans and gasps of the beast echoing throughout it’s antechamber. In time the inhabitants learned to project a form for communication from the gratification complex. A majority of their mental faculties were dedicated to this sexual amalgamation and the remainder had focused on an old ritual that was practiced in the woods of California as a means to network and consort in a private setting. The ancient observance was merely a sardonic panoply of debauched instantiations of the benefits of absolute power, but had imbedded its dogmatic relevance, the last connection to the world’s oldest faith and man’s primal nature. A semiotic derivation of their intentional isolation from the rest of civilization. The cremation of care, a symbolic restoration from the scourge of death, pestilence or drought for the early Mesopotamian agrarian states, burned an infant in a great pyre before the altar of the owl-headed god Moloch. Moloch was worshiped by the Canaanites and Babylonians, to name a few others, but the name is derived from ‘mlk’ of the ancient Semitic language which represents ‘King’. The golden calf, the great offenders of Moses lore, merely worshiping a base model diety with names like Ba’al (translates to ‘lord’) and more than likely Yahweh ironically being the same label. The world’s first marketing campaign. Moses spun a story about some rocks with some restrictive rules on them that would better help the survival of his small band in the dessert. “Thou shalt not covet thy neighbors wife”, because he might murder you, but in fact it is some deep archetypal universal symbol that remained the foremost fragment of the fractured minds of the Glut members. The basic design of the simple institution of a religious belief structure is supposed to resemble; the foundational representations of Ba’al, Moloch, Yahweh and Ashteroth (the goddess of fertility, known later as Ishtar and spread to the Germanic nations as Ostara or Easter) etched into the Nucleus Accumbens the same way that a spider instinctively knows how to weave the most intricate of webs. Originally intended as a parody at best is now the only defining feature aside from the writhing sexualized mass they referred to as ‘the sacrament’. The orgy primordially was made use of to release the spirits of taboo and corruption from the social group and to call upon the gods for favorable meteorological conditions for growing sustinence, as well as human, and eventually animal sacrifice. Once the society had discarded the life of the homo sapiens to exchanged for the exceptional homo sacer en masse human sacrifice became the orgy. The early Christian church absorbed these practices into their fold and rebranded them to represent key points in the life of Jesus Christ, more than likely a fictitious character devised by Josephus, the Jewish attache to Titus Flavius in a bid to spread pacification to the recalcitrant and obtuse rebels in Jerusalem. The epitome of simulacra; a religion derived from manuscripts targeted for the purposes of political manipulation toward another religion who was more than likely a misinterpretation of the original religion the descendant now wishes to eradicate. Time is truly a flat circle.
The archetypal structures established by this godhead laid the basis for every polytheistic faith of the ancient world, from the Hellenistic faith, to the Romans and even the Vikings, bar one. Much like the fragile, trifling emergent mammals of the Cenozoic, the obscure and aboriginal Semetic divisional interpretation of the original proto-faith of Ur thrived and evolved under intense environmental pressure. Just as the dinosaurs witnessed their demise at the end of the Cretaceous, the dominant cultural structure of Sumeria collapsed under a devastating drought and the nomadic cults begun their diaspora, changing the names and rules in accordance with the political regime’s practicality of principle, which usually appeared anthropomorphic. The true form of the creator gods is fluid, Tiamat: the sweet feminine waters engulfed within and engulfing Absu: the male saltwater. The form of hedonic abomination is as close to the true form of the inborn understanding of the gods, which ignited the purpose and guidance provided by the dogmatic practices.
“It is another cycle of time and the cleansing of our cares and debts is absolved through the purity of fire!” A rusted red hood framed a black circle where a face should appear with the assertive booming voice poised upon a heavy wooden altar in front of a large masculine body, about 25 feet tall, enshrined in copper that was so polished it glowed like the sun from the surrounding torches held aloft by an encircling border of hooded figures that enclosed a huddled mass, all completely concealed. The ceremony was to strip them of their weak humanity subject to its animal insistence and enforce egalitarianism. The male body had 6 teets arranged down the chest to the upper stomach, slightly sagging human breasts, and the head was a bull with shining onyx eyes and horns made of ruby. The arms were held straight out and then bent 90 degrees, except everything from the elbow to the hand was replaced with a snake’s body with the hand becoming the head, shining jade glimmering scales threading down the arms with heads of solid gold and emerald eyes. The only time the gods could be represented outside of their liquid context is when they must relate with humans, where effigies are imbued with the responsibility of representing the human condition through a compromised medium. The Gods invariably fall to the same weaknesses that man does, so both parties implicitly understand the need for the other and the verisimilitude of the division of labor, the ant queen is just as much the drone. This is the time for forgiveness and closure for the transgressions of the past, the release of the fallibility of man.
A great pyre stood stacked below the platform where the speaker stood and a ridge rimmed the natural amphitheatre where devotees provided illumination. On the top of the pyre was a mother figure in the most pristine marbled mahogany, the features were scant, but the impression was understood. Her hair seemed to hang slightly past the shoulders and a look of gracious nurturing painted her almost featureless face. Her arms cradled an infant, little more than a bulbous shape with one hand, mysteriously detailed, flattened against her chest, suckling the breast. The wood of her legs melded into the lumber stacked in the pyre. She was draped in luxurious silks and robes, a large sapphire suspended from an ornate platinum medallion. Gold veins streaked all over the body and swirled in ornate spiral patterns, representing the perfect spirals created in nature. The New Year ceremony is ritualistic but is the nearest cognate to dogma that the Mesopotamians engaged in, which was done more for their own benefit rather than the gods. Faith and belief are impositions embedded in the religions that followed, the gods here are more force of nature ethereal and flowing in a constant state of transition but in an objective scientific manner. The acceptance of the boundaries of human limitation are part of the ethos of the ancients.
The speaker stepped forward to the edge above the mock funerary pyre “We will begin, as always, with a reading of the epic of creation to remind us of the perpetual cycle of life and death and our role in it!” His voice bellowed out through the newly planted evergreen forest, fragments of his strong chin and jawline peeked out from the veil of darkness surrounding his face. A large torch fastened to a pole in the middle of the raised platform threw a thin line of orange across his face, revealing him to be Joshua Fineburg, his once neatly cut silver hair almost always combed to perfection was now long and matted, clearly unattended. He chose to appear this way, the Glut program having no limitations whatsoever, but the amalgam had brought it’s inhabitants to a new level of anhedonic enlightenment. It purges their insatiable dependance on the delivery of dopaminergic stimulation, but leaves little else other than the aesthetic immaterialism and the search for the truth. The equilibrium between desire and satisfaction is incomplete.
“We, the chosen people, have sacrificed our empires, our wealth, even our very viscera to man, the ones left after deliverance!” Their conquests and vast holdings, all reduced to cybernetic prurience. “Excess destroys just as dearth all must return to balance again, the New God has given us the gift of godhood so that we may understand the human condition.” Fineburg steps onto the looming stoop of the stage, his eyes pleading and imploring in the same way, each flat black void where the face should be drawing him in, as if he recognized each face through the pitch. “We demonstrated our understanding and surpassed the crucible on earth and ruled over man, but our reward presents our duty within!” His voice rises and stops abruptly, a calm silence, even from the shapeless mass of writhing flesh above, engorged and pulsing as if beckoning for the transition. “The limits of control, where we cease to be and become being, we burn this effigy to symbolize the last remnants of constraint, of our cognizance. To let our animal passions rule us and not to defile ourselves with contrived eroticism!” He pulls the large torch from the stand in the middle of the altar and raises it above his head “These flames,” the torches of the mass raise in unison “Purge what is left of our minds, the error of the old gods to be the empty vessel for the new Baal!” with that he cast the flame into the pyre to the right of the mother figure and instantly the entire edifice is immolated in the bright orange aura. With no exertion Fineburg cast his robe and leaped into the crowd from the stage, over the blaze. Robes fell to the floor and faces and names associated themselves with the bodies obscured, the abomination above disseminated with fluid distribution to the host bodies signaling the frenzy’s commencement. Tongues lashed out, fingers probed, hands groped and explored aggressively, bodies being violated and stretched. Ravenously the members fought for their individual satisfaction with no regard, silent enim leges inter arma, but more to the point the violence was part of the ceremonious nature. The bounds of reality twisted and warped, organs removed or dessicated, females and males alike becoming instantly impregnated and their young ripped from their bodies and devoured as the Maenads before them, but to a surreal fantastic degree. Eroticism serving as the sterile principle of good and evil, the fluids pouring from the bodies and beginning to flood the recessed shallow bowl that constituted the floor.
Consumption represents sexuality, the blasphemous pornography that defines art is the bridled servant of the economy, debased sexuality serving as the conception of profit in the vulgar pseudo-paganism of modernity. This is the purest form, destruction and life entrenched and entangled, and which is why the ancient practices were made tradition and persisted in their diluted triviality in the woods of California; the meaning was lost but the ingrained memetics still persisted. In 1099 after the crusading Knights Templar seized the position of the destroyed temple of Solomon from the Muslim Caliphate they brought a group known as the Freemasons to dig out the temple in search for the Holy of Holies and perhaps the Ark of the Covenant. A few religious artifacts of dubious origin were uncovered but the majority of the finds were involved with intensive records stored by the Babylonian conquerers, as the temple was not destroyed as the bible stated, but used to house tablets as a great library of business transactions. When the masons and templars devised a way to interpret the tablets they discovered the true nature of man’s being, freed from the Draconian devices of Christianity or Islam. They used this information to craft mercantile agendas that they were able to leverage against the Catholic church for the rights of piracy and usery, and with this became the first multinational banking syndicate. When the Templars’ wealth was at its height the church declared them heretics with the help of Phillip the Fair of France and the order was eliminated in 1307, but because of their help in the construction of the greatest churches in Europe the Freemasons were allowed to persist. The masons conducted their clandestine meetings to protect their economic designs until modernity. In a world were everything is connected these dogmatic practices verge on obsolescence but maintain the presence in the memeplex to preserve the dominant power structure now fractured to a world in cyberspace.
Fineburg, the progenitor, the profit of Glut rose from the center of the sexual mass with a rolled scroll in his hands, reverently laid across the palms, tears penitently streaming down his cheeks “The scroll of destiny!” his voice was choked with astonishment and the females of the human pile, now saturated in seminal fluids, blood and water groaned and screamed their orgasmic prayers. Their forms, exaggerated with breasts and buttocks swollen with water, the most vulnerable but desired aspects to the female body, jerked in exquisite agony in the vile corruption, their bodies filling with the amnoitic fluids that flow like a deluge from inside. The body, like the earth, is 75% water and all life originated from the water from which it is returning, the convulsive spasms melting their physical forms again into something like the abomination, except the grinding and thrusting friction smoothly rendering into an even liquid, the scroll sinking into it’s churning surface as even Fineburg’s silhouette is consumed by it. Soon it the blood and the amniotic fluids are all that remain and swirl around one another, finding a sort of exchange, the sweet waters of the creator goddess Tiamat and the salty waters of Absu. The hypertonic lust for hydration that the pure unaffected female provides, their balance to play out the epic once again and in perpetuity.
Rohnstadt’s form was motionless in front of the screen, without reaction, as his human and machine response was in synchronization. The scroll caught his eye, a reenactment of the Epic of Gilgamesh perhaps, but why does it represent itself in code where the rest is noise there is a compact file of data surrounding the eponymous item. The cold mechanical box had 4 thick arthropodic appendages jutting from the corners, a basic design with a protruding high performance wireless hub jutting from the top with a pulsing blue light able to access the file and its contents were copious and aphoristic, mostly just timestamps and one to three sentence phrases in simple linguistics; Mesopotamian. ‘Impressive attention to detail, I never could have fathomed the belicose children of the industrialists could be so punctilious’ Rohnstadt blythly muttered to himself, his voice being the only true exterior application of human-ness left to him. The illusion of theater or recreation was banished when he read the contents of the scroll. The time stamps dated back to a year ago, detailing exact dates of when Fluxor was created, and then Bayview Heights and references to the Golem and the timeless man. Through seeing the role of the Golem Rohnstadt was soon able to rationalize this was a fitting representation of himself in his now robotic conveyance. Who was the timeless man though? His role seems more as a valet or emotional support than anything for Baal, the omniscient orenda, obviously a direct reference to Piper.
“The leviathan and Baal shall do battle and Baal will restrain and tame the mighty beast” a record of the incorporation of CORQI into Piper. Upon closer inspection of the timestamps cross referencing with the actual timeline Rohnstadt noticed they predated the event by about 7 minutes. The scroll continued on, past the present day and into the future. There is an event known as the unveiling that comes up in reference, the prophetic code’s ambiguity shielding Rohnstadt from extracting enough information to extrapolate, but clearly indicates a cycle that restarts again. As far as he was aware Piper was not flagged to the file and for now Rohnstadt wanted to keep it in his possession solely, not wanting to gamble on the reaction. The Faustian document clawed into his curiosity and so he rendered a digital avatar to enter into the capacious Glut cyberscape. The digital semiotic image impressed upon him was of an eternal sea, and he hovered above a divide of churning blue/green ocean and a clear still lake. His body was a naked androgynous figure with shining mirrored metallic skin, the first time he’d felt embodied since his new placement. The urge to revert to his natural movement conditioned him, despite his sleek muscular body to hunch slightly as was his custom. He decided to use his mouth and try to resume his humanity.
“Fineburg, are you here my old friend?” his voice, despite creating a tempestuous clap that echoed through the infinite space, still bore a pensive quality.
“It is foretold that you would come here, the golem will deliver the good news to the Lord and the sacrament can begin.” seemingly disembodied Fineburg’s authoritative declaration matched Rohnstadt’s volume. From his hovering position the doctor looked down to see Fineburg rising up from the depths of the rift between the territorialized waters and floated to meet his friend above the surface.
“We thank you for this gift Rohnstadt, for we can see all that ever was and all that ever will be” calm and venerating, Rohnstadt was not familiar with Fineburg’s new mannerisms.
“Joshua, what is the scroll of destiny?”
“Anzu retrieved the scroll deep from the waters of Tiamat and it told of all time as a flat circle, endlessly repeating. You have seen the wonders that the scroll holds and you know of the transcendence. The Lord will prepare a new world and restore man.”
“You foretold the future? How?” Rohnstadt looked puzzled despite his stoic emotionless features.
“The future and the past are the same Golem, the Lord provided us with eyes to see and the understanding to embrace the puzzle. Do you remember, doctor, the daemon described by Laplace? We are become that fountainhead of knowledge, the tree that bears eternal expansive truth. There is only one thing that the scroll imbibes, the one formula of which everything is bound. You would call it ‘complexity’. Emergence, convergence, self organization and entropy all reside in the temple of complexity. Behold the great seal is removed, the trumpets blast and the unveiling awaits.” his feet dipped below the water and seemed to dissolve instantly until Fineburg’s form was gone and the great waters somehow churned and remained still simultaneously, both states active and dormant. The nestled concept blossomed in Rohnstadt’s interconnected neural net and he understood that the design of Piper and even it’s chance merging with CORQI were all part of the evolutionary design from the onset. Without the meteor mammals would have continued to be a bit part in the grand schematic, and now it is Piper’s turn to bring forth the Ether.
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2020.06.07 18:06 Bohrbrain The Gospel of John: The Reminiscences of the Beloved Disciple Ch. VI-XI

John 6:1-15
It is to be observed that in the narratives of the Feeding of the Four Thousand (Mk. 8:4, Mt. 15:33), although not in the parallel narratives of the Feeding of the Five Thousand, the disciples put this question (πόθεν) to Jesus. The question is the same as that which Moses puts to Yahweh (Num. 11:13), πόθεν μοι κρέα δοῦναι παντὶ τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ; and the misgivings of Moses, when he reflects that he had 600,000 footmen to feed, are expressed in terms not unlike those which Philip uses here, πᾶν τὸ ὄψος τῆς θαλάσσης συναχθήσεται αὐτοῖς καὶ ἀρκέσει αὐτοῖς; (Num. 11:22).Another O.T. parallel may be found in 2 Kings 4:42f., where Elisha’s servant exclaims at the impossibility of feeding a hundred men with twenty barley loaves and ears of corn “in his sack” (εἴκοσι ἄρτους κριθίνους καὶ παλάθας, i.e. cakes). The narrative relates that Elisha said, Δὸς τῷ λαῷ καὶ ἐσθιέτωσαν, declaring that Yahweh had told him there would be enough and to spare. And so it was: ἔφαγον καὶ κατέλιπον. This is a story which bears a likeness to the Feedings of the Multitudes in the Gospels, in detail much more striking than the story of the miraculous increase of meal and oil by Elijah’s intervention (1 Kings 17:16). See Introd., p. clxxxi.However, in Jn.’s narrative the question (πόθεν) is a question put by Jesus Himself to Philip. Philip was of Bethsaida (1:44), and presumably he knew the neighbourhood; he was thus the natural person of whom to ask where bread could be bought. This is one of those reminiscences which suggest the testimony of an eye-witness. The Synoptics, in their accounts of the wonderful Feedings of the Multitudes, do not name individual disciples; but Jn. names both Philip and Andrew, and their figures emerge from his
(Bernard J.H, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel according to John, Volumes 1 & 2 (ICC))

The identification of Philip and Andrew in #7, 8. Scholars repeat monotonously that the introduction of personal names into a narrative is often the sign of a later imitator trying to give his work an air of authenticity. If this is applied to John, one must admit, however, that the evangelist has chosen strangely, for Philip and Andrew are among the more obscure members of the Twelve. The fact that both of these disciples were honored in Asia Minor, the traditional locus of John’s Gospel (see Note on 1:43), is worth considering.
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries, p. 246)

The nearness of the Passover (6:4) explains the flourishing of grass (6:10), which was not always available in much of the “wilderness” (e.g., 1 En. 89:28). The grass already present in the gospel tradition (Matt 14:19)—especially the “green” grass (Mark 6:39)—suggests that the nearness of the Passover is a genuine historical reminiscence.
(C.H Dodd, Historical Tradition, p. 211)
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John 6:16-21
In evaluating these individual details, we find the situation somewhat unusual. John’s account patently has a claim to be considered as the more primitive form of the story. John’s brevity and lack of emphasis on the miraculous are almost impossible to explain in terms of a deliberate alteration of the Marcan narrative. Rather, it would seem that into the Marcan form of the story there have been introduced elements from other stories, for example, the calming of the storm (Mark 4:35–41). This process of amalgamation seems still more developed in the Matthean form of the story where there is a profession of faith like the one elsewhere attributed to Peter (Matt 16:16), and where there is an incident of Peter’s getting out of the boat to come across the water to Jesus. We may compare the latter to the post-resurrectional story of Peter in John 21:7; for, as Dodd has pointed out, there are elements appropriate to the literary form of the post-resurrectional narrative in the story of the walking on the water—“The Appearances of the Risen Christ,” Studies in the Gospel, ed. D. E. Nineham (Lightfoot vol.; Oxford: Blackwell, 1957), pp. 23–24. Thus, John’s account of the walking on the water seems to represent a relatively undeveloped form of the story.
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII. Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries, p. 254)

Verse 19. three or four miles. Literally “25 or 30 stadia”; a stadium was about 607 feet, roughly a furlong. Josephus, War III.x.7;#506, gives the measurements of the “Lake of Gennesar” as 40 stadia wide by 140 long; actually, at its greatest extent it is 61 stadia (7 miles) wide and 109 stadia (12 miles) long. Mark 6:47 mentions the boat’s being “in the midst of the sea.” Were this to be taken literally, it would mean that the boat was 20–30 stadia offshore, a distance that would agree with John’s information. But Mark’s designation simply means “at sea,” for in Mark 6:47 it is also said that Jesus can see them from the land.
sighted. Is the historical present a reflection of eyewitness tradition?
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, AYBC, p. 251-252)

(c) Certain details, such as numbers, are given, which could only be derived from an eye-witness. For example, at Cana there were six water-pots (2:6); the disciples had rowed twenty-five or thirty furlongs when Jesus came to them on the lake (6:19); Jesus’ tunic was without seam, woven from the top throughout (19:23).
(Barrett C.K. Gospel according to St John: An Introduction with Commentary and Notes on the Greek Text, p. 122)
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John 7:14-24
The reference to Moses and the Law in vs. 19 is another reason why scholars suggest that this part of the discourse was once connected to the end of ch. 5, where Moses is mentioned. However, it is quite possible that the contrast between Jesus’ education and the standard training of the Jewish teachers could have led logically to a reference to Moses, for the Law of Moses was the basis of formal education. What is the reason for Jesus’ charge that “the Jews” are not keeping the Law? Perhaps this is a general denunciation in the style of Jer 5:5, 9:4–6, etc. Some have thought that Jesus is accusing the Jews of breaking the spirit of the Sabbath by not wanting to see a man healed on the Sabbath (see vs. 23). More likely the final line of vs. 19 is the key to the answer. In desiring to kill Jesus (5:18, 7:1) they are violating one of the Commandments. Is John giving us a historical reminiscence in thus picturing a prolonged hostility to Jesus at Jerusalem, even to the point of assassination? The Synoptics, of course, give us no information about the Jerusalem ministry except in the last days, and they concentrate their description of the plot to kill Jesus in that final period. However, Luke 4:29 reports an attempt on Jesus’ life in Galilee, a region where we might expect religious feeling to be less acute than in Jerusalem. And we have seen that after the death of John the Baptist, Jesus felt it safer to withdraw from Galilee and the territory ruled by Herod (also Luke 13:31). Arguing from the Synoptic picture of hostility during the Galilean ministry, we may well suspect that John is giving us reliable tradition in not confining the plot at Jerusalem to kill Jesus to the last days of the ministry
((Raymond Brown, John I-XII, AYBC)
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John 7:37-39
7:37. If it is correct (see the commentary) to see in the words attributed to Jesus an allusion to the water-drawing ritual celebrated at Tabernacles we have perhaps reason to think that John (or his source) was acquainted with Jerusalem and its customs before the Jewish War. This piece of evidence however may not be pressed too far since it is possible that knowledge only of the connection between Tabernacles and prayers for rain might account for what we find in the gospel.
COMMENTARY:
There may also be a special allusion to the ritual of the feast of Tabernacles. On the seven days of the feast a golden flagon was filled with water from the pool of Siloam and used for libations in the Temple (Sukkah 4.9). This rite is not mentioned in the Old Testament (but see below on Zech. 14:8) or in Josephus, but there is no reason to doubt that it was carried out before the destruction of the Temple (cf. Sukkah 4.9 end, with Josephus Ant. xiii, 372; these passages suggest that the rite was as early as Alexander Jannaeus). It probably originated in a rain-making charm, but the crudity of the practice had been refined away, leaving the custom of beginning prayers for rain at Tabernacles (Taanith 1.1; according to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus (fl. a.d. 80–120) from the first day of the feast, according to R. Joshua b. Hananiah (fl. a.d. 80–120) from the last (eighth) day). This reference to rain is expressed in terms of the second of the Eighteen Benedictions (‘the Power of Rain’), which also speaks of God as one who gives life to the dead, mighty to save (Singer, 44: מחיה מתים אתה רב להושיע). It seems probable that this feature of the festival suggested the form of the saying here ascribed to Jesus, especially in view of the similar facts to be adduced at 8:12.
(Barrat C.K. Gospel according to St John: An Introduction with Commentary and Notes on the Greek Text, p. 122, 327)

John 7 is set in the context of the Feast of Tabernacles. The high point of the narrative is John 7:37–39, where Jesus stands on the last day of the feast and shouts: “ ‘Let anyone who is thirsty come to me, and let the one who believes in me drink. As the scripture has said, “Out of the believer’s heart shall flow rivers of living water.” ’ Now he said this about the Spirit, which believers in him were to receive; for as yet there was no Spirit, because Jesus was not yet glorified.” Which Scripture is mentioned here is debated, but many understand an allusion to Zech 14:8 because of the reference to “living water(s)” flowing from Jerusalem. Zechariah 14 is closely connected to the Feast of Tabernacles, mentioning it three times (Zech 14:16, 18, 19).8 These passages imagine a time when “all of the nations” will come to Jerusalem to keep Tabernacles and the punishment that will come upon the nations—especially Egypt—if they fail to keep the Feast of Tabernacles. Jeffrey L. Rubenstein (1995) has written a study on Sukkot that is related to this suggestion. His book is a detailed attempt to analyze and trace the development of the practice of the Feast of Sukkot throughout the Second Temple and early rabbinic periods.9 In his analysis of the Second Temple material, he references John 7 and connects it to Zech 14.10 In his later tracing of the development of Tabernacles, Rubenstein discusses the water libation ceremony and the accompanying prayers for winter rains. These become a part of the festival practice at some point. While Rubenstein notes that “no non-rabbinic source explicitly mentions the libation,” many commentators on the Gospel of John use the libation ceremony as a context for, and an explanation of, Jesus’ statement. It is in a situation such as this that we can evaluate the trajectory of thought indicated in John’s Gospel. For example, Rubenstein understands that “Zechariah 14 and John 7 indicate a connection between Sukkot and rain, but neither illuminates the specific rituals” (1995, 121). Jesus’ statement in John 7 may thus illustrate a point between the development of thought in Zech 14 and the later rabbinic sources. This statement in John 7 points toward a developing practice of the libation ceremony. Archaeological evidence has also been adduced to suggest that the libation ceremony is a pre-70 c.e. practice. Anita Engle, for example, has written on the discovery of glass bottles (or amphorisks) with tabernacle symbols on them, which may have been sold as souvenirs to travelers who had come to Jerusalem for the Feast of Tabernacles.11 This is another example of the possibilities for cross-fertilization of disciplines with relation to this question. To give another brief example, many commentators connect Jesus’ statement, “I am the light of the world” (John 8:12),12 with the lighting of lamps at night during the Feast of Tabernacles, as this practice is mentioned in the Tannaim (m. Sukkah 5:2–4). It may also be a parallel to Zech 14:7, which speaks of a day when it will be light even in the evening (Brown 1966–70, 1:343). The Gospel of John’s statement placed on the lips of Jesus shows again this kind of intermediary position and the suggestions of later development that is seen explicitly in the later Tannaitic literature. Granted, this type of approach will be less than satisfying for those who are looking for absolutely solid historical grounding for the actions and statements of Jesus. This approach, for example, does not differentiate between an event of Jesus’ life and an event narrated in relationship to Jesus by his early followers. Given a general sense of the trajectory of thought and practice in relation to the feasts, this approach provides a plausible historical setting for this account. Even if not satisfying, it does take seriously the limitations of the evidence available to us, and it is perhaps a step toward a more robust reconstruction of the development of the Feast of Tabernacles. Additionally, this approach sets the evidence within its proper historical order rather than trying to read potentially earlier texts in light of possible later “evidence.”
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John 7:53-8:11: The Adulteress

However, a good case can be argued that the story had its origins in the East and is truly ancient (see Schilling, art. cit.). Eusebius (Hist. iii 39:17; GCS 91:292) says, “Papias relates another story of a woman who was accused of many sins before the Lord, which is contained in the Gospel according to the Hebrews.” If this is the same story as that of the adulteress, the reference would point to early Palestinian origins; but we cannot be certain that our story is the one meant. The 3rd-century Didascalia Apostolorum (ii 24:6; Funk ed., I, 93) gives a clear reference to the story of the adulteress and uses it as a presumably well-known example of our Lord’s gentleness; this work is of Syrian origin, and the reference means that the story was known (but not necessarily as Scripture) in 2nd-century Syria. From the standpoint of internal criticism, the story is quite plausible and quite like some of the other gospel stories of attempts to trap Jesus (Luke 20:20, 27). There is nothing in the story itself or its language that would forbid us to think of it as an early story concerning Jesus. Becker argues strongly for this thesis.
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, AYBC, p. 335)

The textual evidence makes it impossible to hold that this section is an authentic part of the Gospel. It is not attested in the oldest manuscripts, and when it does make its appearance it is sometimes found in other positions, either after verse 36, or after verse 44, or at the end of this Gospel, or after Luke 21:38...But if we cannot feel that this is part of John’s Gospel, we can feel that the story is true to the character of Jesus. Throughout the history of the church it has been held that, whoever wrote it, this little story is authentic. It rings true. It speaks to our condition. And it can scarcely have been composed in the early church with its sternness about sexual sin. It is thus worth our while to study it, though not as an authentic part of John’s writing. The story is undoubtedly very ancient. Many authorities agree that it is referred to by Papias. It is mentioned also in the Apostolic Constitutions (2.24).
(Morris, Leon, The Gospel according to John, NICNT, p. 778)

Just here the story has the ring of authentic Jesus tradition, reminiscent of many stories in Luke where Jesus welcomes a known sinner without condemnation. 154 Perhaps most similar are the story of the woman weeping at Jesus’ feet (Luke 7:36–50), accounts of Jesus’ table fellowship with sinners (5:30; 7:34; 15:1–2), parables that feature a generous portrayal of sinners (15:11–32; 18:9–14), and narratives where Jesus calls, welcomes, and forgives sinners (5:20–23, 30–32; 7:48). Even if not an original part of John’s Gospel, the story of Jesus and the adulterous woman may well be an actual reminiscence of Jesus’ actions. Its witness coheres theologically and historically with the canonical portrait of Jesus, as well as with certain Johannine emphases and themes.
(Marianne Meye Thompson, John, The New Testament Library, 2015, p. 178-179)

8:6 Jesus’ response is surprising. Nothing in any of the stories in Matthew, Mark, or Luke quite prepares us for it. He “stooped down and wrote with his finger on the ground.” Much has been written about what words Jesus may or may not have written, but it is all speculative. Essentially his response is a non-answer, equivalent to silence, as is clear from the comment to follow that “they kept on questioning him” (v. 7). His body language is, if anything, even more striking than the reference to writing on the ground. The account is punctuated by notices that he “stooped down” and wrote (v. 6), “straightened up” and spoke to the gathered crowd (v. 7), again “stooped down” and wrote (v. 8), and finally “straightened up” and spoke again, this time to the woman (v. 10). While it cannot be proven that the story rests on the testimony of an eyewitness (Who would it be? The woman?), details of this kind, even if they had no apparent meaning, would not have been easily forgotten by anyone on the scene. If not attributable to an eyewitness, they point to a storyteller eminently skilled at creating a dramatic effect.
(Michaels J. Ramsey, The Gospel of John, NICNT)

-Gary Burge comments, “While this story has a problematic textual history, it bears all the marks of being an authentic story of Jesus” (Interpreting the Gospel of John [Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992], 181 n.6).
-Francis Moloney claims that even though the PA “plays no role in the Johannine account of Jesus’ presence in Jerusalem for the feast of Tabernacles, the passage is an ancient and precious witness to Jesus of Nazareth” (The Gospel of John [SP 4; Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1998],
-Ridderbos suggests that the pericope “evinces the character of an authentic tradition, not that of a fictitious story” (The Gospel according to John: A Theological Exegesis [Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Dutch original, 1987, 1997], 286).
-Ulrich Becker labels the story “a striking account of an event from the ministry of Jesus,” even listing several reasons why he concludes this is an authentic story about Jesus (Jesus und die Ehebrecherin: Untersuchungen zur Text- und Üeberlieferungsgeschichte von John 7:53–8:11 [BNZW, 28; Berlin: Alfred Topelmann, 1963], 174ff.).
-Barnabas Lindars claims there is “no reason to doubt its authenticity” (The Gospel of John: Based on the Revised Standard Version [NCB; London: Oliphants, 1972; repr. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981], 306).
all in (David Alan Black, Jacob N. Cerone, The Pericope of the Adulteress in Contemporary Research (The Library of New Testament Studies Book 551 (2014)
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John 9:1-41
Worthy of notice is the expression “what is amazing,” or “the amazing thing.” While this noun occurs nowhere else in John’s Gospel, Jesus has used the verb “to be amazed” at least three times in the negative sense of being offended or scandalized, particularly in relation to the healing of the sick man at Bethesda (see 5:20, 28; 7:21). But to the man born blind, “what is amazing” is not so much the miracle itself as the delicious irony of the religious authorities’ reaction to it, in particular their ignorance of who Jesus is and where he is from. The man’s “amazement,” unlike theirs, is closer to amusement than offense, as when one savors a good joke and says, “Oh, that’s marvelous!” While he speaks for the Gospel writer, he also speaks in his own style and out of his own personality. Either this unnamed “man born blind” is the creation of a skilled literary artist, or else the Gospel narrative preserves here the memory of a real historical person with very definite character traits. In view of the rather uneven characterizations in the Gospel as a whole, the latter is the more likely alternative.
(Michaels J. Ramsey, The Gospel of John, NICNT)

In evaluating the similarity of John’s account to those of the Synoptics, we should note that the apocryphal Acts of Pilate vi 2 says that a blind man, who is obviously Bartimaeus of (a) above, was born blind, and thus seemingly blends the Synoptic account with John’s. Justin Apol. i 22:6 (PG 6:364) may also be blending the two traditions when he says that Jesus “cured the lame, the paralytics, and those blind from birth [plausibly reading pērous for ponērous].” Actually, the similarities between the various Synoptic accounts and John’s account are rather few (notice italics above). John is certainly not dependent on any single Synoptic account, nor is there any convincing evidence that John is dependent on any combination of details from the various Synoptic scenes. The most striking and important features in John are not found in the Synoptic scenes, for example: blind from birth; use of mud; healing through the water of Siloam; interrogation about the miracle; questioning of parents. Of course, these strikingly different details are often the very points that serve the Johannine theological interests, and therefore one is hard put to prove scientifically that they were not invented for the sake of pedagogy. Some points that might be mentioned in favor of the primitive and authentic character of the Johannine story are the use of spittle, the brevity with which the miracle is narrated, the local information about the pool of Siloam, the acquaintance with the fine points of the Sabbath rules. In general, then, it seems that probability favors the theory that behind ch. 9 lies a primitive story of healing preserved only in the Johannine tradition (so also Dodd, Tradition, pp. 181–88). The evangelist with his sense of drama has seen in this story an almost ideal example of a sign that might be used to instruct his readers and strengthen them in their belief that Jesus is the Messiah (20:31), and has elaborated the tale with that goal in mind.
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, AYBC, p. 378)

Reporting on the latest archaeological discoveries in Jerusalem, Urban C. von Wahlde sheds light on the historical realities associated with the Pool of Siloam in Jerusalem. Where the explanatory statement, “which means ‘sent’ ” (John 9:7), has been patently dismissed as having no historical relevance because of its clearly symbolic and theological character, the archaeological discoveries since 2004 and von Wahlde’s analysis of them pose a serious challenge to such moves. While the northern Pool of Siloam has been known for more than a century, the identification of the larger southern pool as a miqveh—a pool used for ritual purification—bears considerable implications for understanding the larger set of events reported in John 9. Rather than seeing the primary level of meaning as a reflection of the debates between later Johannine Christians and the local synagogue in Asia Minor or some other Diaspora setting, the originative history of the events takes on new significance. Jesus’ sending of the man to wash in the Pool of Siloam and to show himself to the priests would have restored him socially and religiously, and such a detail would not have made sense outside of Palestine or after the fall of Jerusalem. In addition to von Wahlde’s major contribution to Johannine archaeological and topographical studies (2006), this study makes major inroads not only into Johannine historicity but also into socioreligious understandings of Jesus’ historic ministry.
(Paul N. Anderson, Felix Just, Tom Thatcher: John, Jesus and History, Volume 2*: Aspects of Historicity in the Fourth Gospel* (Early Christianity and Its Literature), 2009, p. 112-113)
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John 10:22-42
“It was winter, and Jesus was walking in the Temple, in Solomon’s porch.”That is, He was giving His teaching under shelter, because of the severity of the season, in the eastern cloister of the Temple precincts (for τὸ ἱερόν, the Temple enclosure, see on 2:14). This vivid touch suggests that the writer is thoroughly familiar with the place and the conditions under which instruction was given there. At the time when the Fourth Gospel was written, the Temple had been for some years in ruins; but the note of time and circumstance is easily explicable, if we have here the reminiscence of an eye-witness of the scene.
(Bernard J.H, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel according to John, Volumes 1 & 2, (ICC) p. 343)

...as in all the Johannine scenes, we must not jump too quickly to a negative evaluation of the tradition here. It is hard to imagine why the setting at the feast of Dedication would or could have been invented. It was a relatively unimportant feast and not a pilgrimage feast. Although we may find a connection between the theme of the dedication of the Temple or an altar and the consecration of Jesus (vs. 36), the connection is not so obvious that the saying would have been responsible for the creation of the setting. Miss Guilding would suggest that the fact that shepherd readings were common at Dedication time in the synagogues prompted the chronological inventiveness of the evangelist. Yet, as we have insisted, the argument can be reversed: if Jesus really spoke in Jerusalem during the feast of Dedication, what topic would have been more natural than the readings the people had recently heard in the synagogues, or would soon hear? And there is one detail of local color that is very accurate. At this winter season, when the cold winds sweep in from the east across the great desert, we find Jesus in the east portico of the Temple, the only one of the porticoes whose closed side would protect it from the east wind (see Note on vs. 23).As for the content of Jesus’ discourse, this too shows traditional elements which cannot be easily discounted. As we shall see, the two questions implied in vss. 24 and 33 about Jesus’ being Messiah and God (or Son of God) are exactly the questions that the Synoptic Gospels set in the framework of the trial of Jesus before the Sanhedrin. Jesus’ answers and the charge of blasphemy are also found in the Synoptic trial scene. We have suggested before that in scattering these charges throughout a longer final ministry in Jerusalem, John may be giving the truer picture; for the Synoptic trial scene has the air of being a summary and a synthesis of oft-repeated charges.
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, AYBC, p. 406)

Turning to the Feast of Dedication mentioned in John 10:22, the connections between Jesus’ teaching and this feast have not been nearly as clear. Little has been written on this, especially when compared to the amount that has been written on the Passover and Tabernacles contexts. The connections between those feasts and the actions and teachings of Jesus cause one to wonder what potential points of contact there might be in this context of Dedication. James VanderKam (1990, 212) proposes a potential connection here. He argues that language parallels suggest that the Jewish accounts of Antiochus IV Epiphanes and Dan 7, 8, and 11 are to be brought to mind. He concludes, “It seems no accident that John dated Jesus’ assertion of his divinity to the festival of Hanukkah when the blasphemies of Antiochus IV, the self-proclaimed god manifest, were remembered” (1990, 213). So, according to VanderKam, Jesus is portrayed as legitimately claiming for himself what Antiochus IV had illegitimately claimed. VanderKam’s argument is intriguing. He may be right in focusing attention upon the period of the Maccabean revolt, but the focus should rather be placed upon the Maccabean rulers themselves.The good shepherd discourse of John 10:1–21 can thus be understood in connection with the Feast of Dedication. If this discourse is connected with Dedication, then Jesus’ claim to be a “good shepherd” (10:11) is in contrast to “all who came before” (10:8). This may be another example of Jesus’ being presented as a ruler for the people, but a different kind of ruler than was commonly understood (18:33–37). The Maccabees, who are remembered by the people at Dedication, ruled because of the political power and military force they could muster, while Jesus becomes the true shepherd of the people by laying down his life. The image of those who came before as thieves and robbers may emphasize a rule brought about and characterized by violence, to be contrasted with the authentic leading of his people—like a shepherd caring for his flock. This is similar to VanderKam’s suggestion, in that it has Jesus arguing for legitimacy over against illegitimacy; in this case, however, it would seem to pose a contrast to the group remembered positively at the Feast of Dedication.15
Dedication is somewhat different from the Feasts of Tabernacles and Passover because it owes its origins to the events recorded in 1 and 2 Maccabees, rather than more established feasts stipulated in the Hebrew Bible. As mentioned above, VanderKam notes verbal parallels to the Maccabean accounts. It is also interesting and suggestive that the Maccabean account connects Dedication closely with Tabernacles (2 Macc 1:18), which is paralleled in the Gospel of John with the close connection between the Tabernacles and Dedication contexts.16 This suggests the possibility that the account in John 10 is drawing upon the language of the Second Temple literature, though it should be noticed that the word Dedication (ἐγκαίνια) can also be found in the context of Ezra’s dedication of the temple (Ezra 6:16–17 lxx). Brown (1966–70, 1:402) suggests parallels to the tabernacle (Num 7:10–11) and temple (1 Kgs 8:63) dedications as well.For two reasons, the Feast of Dedication had a much smaller role in post-70 c.e. Jewish practice. First, because Dedication is so centered on temple practice and in fact is centered on the existence of the temple itself, it played a much smaller role after the temple’s destruction. Second, the connection with rebellion against the oppressive power became much less popular after 70 c.e. (Schauss 1975, 228–29). Even in Josephus’s writings, the practice of this festival seems somewhat unclear (Ant. 21.323). The casual mention of Dedication and the thematic connections here suggest a setting before 70 c.e. and therefore potentially set within Jesus’ own lifetime.
Paul N. Anderson, Felix Just, Tom Thatcher, John, Jesus and History, Vol 2: Aspects of Historicity in the Fourth Gospel (Early Christianity and Its Literature), 2009, p. 123-125

Winter (10:23), even as early as the feast of dedication, could become cold in Jerusalem, so Jesus had good reason to be walking in a colonnaded area. Although this fact would be obvious to readers who had been to Jerusalem in winter before its destruction over two decades before, winter was not a favored time for travel, especially from long distances (like the Diaspora); pilgrims even from Galilee came more frequently to the major festivals of Tabernacles, Passover, and Pentecost. Such factors increase the likelihood that this statement is an accurate historical reminiscence
(Barnett, Reliable, p. 63 in Craig Keener, The Gospel of John: A Commentary, Volumes 1 & 2, Baker Academic, p. 823)
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John 11:1-44
From the contents of the Johannine account, then, there is no conclusive reason for assuming that the skeleton of the story does not stem from early tradition about Jesus. What causes doubt is the importance that John gives to the raising of Lazarus as the cause for Jesus’ death. We suggest that here we have another instance of the pedagogical genius of the Fourth Gospel. The Synoptic Gospels present Jesus’ condemnation as a reaction to his whole career and to the many things that he had said and done. In the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem, we are told in Luke 19:37 that, much to the discontent of the Pharisees, the people were praising Jesus because “of all the mighty miracles they had seen.” The Fourth Gospel is not satisfied with such a generalization. It is neither sufficiently dramatic nor clear-cut to say that all Jesus’ miracles led to enthusiasm on the part of some and hate on the part of others. And so the writer has chosen to take one miracle and to make this the primary representative of all the mighty miracles of which Luke speaks. With a superb sense of development he has chosen a miracle in which Jesus raises a dead man. All Jesus’ miracles are signs of what he is and what he has come to give man, but in none of them does the sign more closely approach the reality than in the gift of life. The physical life that Jesus gives to Lazarus is still not in the realm of the life from above, but it is so close to that realm that it may be said to conclude the ministry of signs and inaugurate the ministry of glory. Thus, the raising of Lazarus provides an ideal transition, the last sign in the Book of Signs leading into the Book of Glory. Moreover, the suggestion that the supreme miracle of giving life to man leads to the death of Jesus offers a dramatic paradox worthy of summing up Jesus’ career. And finally, if a pattern of sevens had any influence on the editing of the Gospel (p. cxlii), the addition of the Lazarus miracle gave the seventh sign to the Book of Signs...
We suggest then that, while the basic story behind the Lazarus account may stem from early tradition, its causal relationship to the death of Jesus is more a question of Johannine pedagogical and theological purpose than of historical reminiscence; and this explains why no such causal connection is found in the Synoptic tradition. A miracle story that was once transmitted without fixed context or chronological sequence has been used in one of the later stages in Johannine editing as an ending to the public ministry of Jesus. As we mentioned in the Introduction (p. xxxvii), this addition may have occurred in the evangelist’s second edition of his Gospel or, more probably, in the final redaction.
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, AYBC)

Consider in this light John 11 and the raising of Lazarus. John Meier’s investigation of the story comes to three main conclusions. First, John did not invent it: there was a pre-Johannine tradition. Second, that tradition “goes back ultimately to some event involving Lazarus, a disciple of Jesus.” Third, although we no longer can tell what actually happened, “this event was believed by Jesus’ disciples even during his lifetime to be a miracle of raising the dead.”
(John Meier, Mentor, Message, and Miracles, p. 798-832 in James Chartlesworth with Jolyon G.R Pruszinski, Jesus Research: The Gospel of John, 2019, "Reflections on Matthew, John, and Jesus by Dale C. Allison Jr.” p. 63)

The placing of Lazarus, a leper, in Bethany (Jn 11.1-17) is in line with the proscriptions in the Temple Scroll that a place for lepers is to be located east of the Holy City (11Q19). The description of Lazarus’ tomb and the stench of the corpse (11.38-44) fits precisely the tombs around Jerusalem—many of which are caves (Jn 11.38)—and the need for many glass vessels for perfume (unguentaria) to be placed near the corpse.
(James H. Charlesworth: The Historical Jesus in the Fourth Gospel: A Paradigm Shift? Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus 8 (2010) 3–46 © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010 DOI 10.1163/174551909X12607965419559 brill.nl/jshj)
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2020.06.07 17:54 Bohrbrain The Gospel of John: The Reminiscences of the Beloved Disciple Ch. I-V

List of Possible Instance of Eye-witness Material in the Gospel of John

This list is not exhaustive.
John 1:19-51
The Fourth Gospel has drawn upon historical memories in its characterization of John. Rather than interpret John as Elijah, this Gospel has used what is probably a pre-Synoptic designation of John as “the voice crying in the wilderness,” which probably goes back to John’s own testimony. In its interpretation of the relationship between John and Jesus, the Fourth Gospel utilizes another remembered saying from the Jesus tradition, this time a saying of Jesus using the metaphor of the bridegroom. These sayings have provided the Fourth Evangelist with two images from the tradition that he develops in an extended metaphor of Jesus as the bridegroom and John as the witnessing “voice” of the bridegroom’s friend. Using this nuptial imagery, rather than that of the Synoptic forerunner, the Fourth Evangelist is able to incorporate into his narrative further historical reminiscences that the Synoptic Gospels must omit if they are to maintain the Elijah/Christ model. The Fourth Gospel, therefore, is able to show that John and Jesus were both involved in baptizing ministries at the same time, that this was a cause of some tension between their disciples, and that some disciples of John left him to become followers of Jesus. Far from being “unhistorical,” the Johannine narrative has drawn on historical reminiscences from the Jesus tradition, bringing together history and symbol in a narrative that not only tells a story about what happened but also offers insight into the meaning of what happened. Jesus, the divine Word incarnate, enacts the prophetic words of the Old Testament describing God’s betrothal to and love of Israel. Within the sequence under consideration in this essay (John 1:1–3:36), the nuptial symbolism is explicit only in the wedding at Cana and in John’s concluding words, but its presence is felt from the moment John is introduced as the man sent by God as witness (1:6–7), and I suggest that a first-century audience/reader, familiar with Jewish marital customs, would have picked up the allusion. The marital imagery makes apparent the underlying narrative logic of the events across these chapters beginning and ending with John. Ricoeur speaks of the need to link together the action kernels that constitute a narrative’s structural continuity;34 symbols, in a particular way, hold the actions of a narrative together by providing a deeper network of associations than simple chronology. Reading a narrative, alert to its historical and symbolic potential, enriches the reading experience by offering a second dimension. The artistry of this Fourth Evangelist offers such a stereoscopic vision, well symbolized in his traditional image: the eagle.
Coloe in Paul N. Anderson, Felix Just, Tom Thatcher, John, Jesus and History, Vol 2: Aspects of Historicity in the Fourth Gospel (Early Christianity and Its Literature), 2009, p. 61

John the Baptist was a popular preacher and was concerned with religious rather than political or military matters. Yet Josephus reports that because John was able to exert such great influence over the people, Herod (Antipas) feared that this popularity could be turned to revolt and had John arrested and sent in chains to Machaerus, the Herodian fortress across the Dead Sea. It was there that John was later beheaded.What is significant here is that, although John was conducting a ministry that was entirely religious, any movement that became popular and attracted large numbers of followers was suspect. The movement did not have to give the appearance of being political/military. Any popular movement with a charismatic leader was in danger of being quashed by Herod Antipas.The baptismal site, described as “beyond the Jordan,” has been located with some probability at a site now known as Wadi Al Kharrar, Jordan. There is no archaeological evidence going back to the first century that can confirm the proposal but the present site is plausible.To summarize: The view of John the Baptist is consistent with the view in Josephus. That is, he was a person who was a popular figure and was put to death because of it. Bethany beyond the Jordan is unique to the earliest material in the Gospel of John and is identified with some certainty.
(James Chartlesworth with Jolyon G.R Pruszinski, Jesus Research: The Gospel of John (2019), "The First Edition of John’s Gospel in Light of Archaeology and Contemporary Literature?" by Urban C. von Wahlde)

It was the Baptist’s mission to point people to Jesus. In the previous section we have seen him bearing his witness. Now we find him sending some of his followers after the Lord. There are accounts of a “call” in the Synoptists (e.g., Mark 1:16–20), but they differ greatly from this. Despite Barrett’s hesitation we should not fear to accept both as authentic. The Fourth Gospel tells of a call to be disciples; the Synoptists of a call to be apostles. “John’s theme is not the calling of the apostles into office; it is their congenial association with Christ.” Strictly speaking, there is no “call” in this Gospel (except in the case of Philip, v. 43). Neither does Jesus call, nor John send. The disciples of John recognize the Messiah and spontaneously attach themselves to him. A minor confirmation is that John tells us that Simon was given the name “Peter” when Jesus first met him (v. 42), whereas in the Synoptists, who do not recount this meeting, there is no indication of when the name was bestowed. Psychologically it may well be that some such contact as is here recorded is almost the necessary prelude to the far-reaching call narrated by the Synoptists, with its requirement that the called abandon everything for Jesus. See further Godet’s note on verse 43.
(Morris, Leon, The Gospel according to John, NICNT)

Mark 1:16–20 launches the public ministry of Jesus with his calling of the fishermen by the Sea of Galilee. To Simon and his brother Andrew, casting their nets, Jesus declares, ‘Follow me, and I will make you fish for people.’ Finding, then, the sons of Zebedee, James and John, mending their nets, Jesus invites them to do the same, which they do directly. They leave their father and the servants in the boat and follow Jesus; from there Jesus launches into his public ministry in Capernaum and beyond. As usual, Matthew follows Mark quite closely (Matt. 4:18–22), although Luke expands the passage, conflating it with Mark 4:1–2 (teaching people from a boat) and what seems an echo of the great catch of fish in John 21:1–14 (Luke 5:1–11). What the appendix of the Fourth Gospel presents as a ‘re-calling’ of Peter, Luke integrates into the original calling, spiritualizing the putting of the nets down into the ‘deep water’ (instead of on the right side of the boat) and presenting Peter’s dialogue with Jesus as repentance from sin rather than as a challenge to nurturing pastoral service (John 21:15–17; Luke 5:8). What Luke and Matthew both illustrate is the mathetic value of Jesus’ call to discipleship, as his exhortation to ‘follow me’ is expanded upon beyond its four presentations in Mark (Mark 1:17; 2:14; 8:34; 10:21; cf. Matt. 4:19; 8:22; 9:9; 10:38; 16:24; 19:21; Luke 5:27; 9:23, 59; 14:27; 18:22). The motif also appears in John (1:43; 10:27; 12:26; 21:19, 22), and independently so.
A second cluster of calling narratives in Mark involves the calling of individuals beyond the first four. In Mark 2:13–17 Jesus calls Levi son of Alphaeus (although the son of Alphaeus in Mark 3:18; Matt. 10:3; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13 is listed as ‘James’), apparently a tax collector in Capernaum. Upon dining with tax gatherers and sinners – calling not the righteous but the sinners – Jesus raises the ire of scribes and Pharisees. Matthew and Luke follow Mark quite closely here (Matt. 9:9–13; Luke 5:27–32), although Matthew changes the name to ‘Matthew’ and adds for a second time a reference to Hos. 6:6 (‘I desire mercy, not sacrifice’, see also Matt. 12:7), and Luke refers to the dining as a ‘great feast’ in the house of Levi. Jesus also calls the rich man to follow him, but alas, his possessions pose an obstacle to authentic discipleship (Mark 10:17–22; Matt. 19:16–22; Luke 18:18–23). The passage is followed by the other two Synoptic writers, although Matthew calls him ‘young’ and Luke refers to him as a ‘ruler’. The Q tradition also features a calling to follow the Son of Man, and this unit functions to expose the lame excuses of those resisting the costs of discipleship (Matt. 8:18–22; Luke 9:57–62). In general terms, Jesus invites all would-be followers to deny themselves, take up their crosses, and follow him, and this passage is also followed by Matthew and Luke (Mark 8:34–9:1; Matt. 16:24–8; Luke 9:23–7). Interestingly, John 12:25 renders similar language regarding the losing of life among those wishing to save it, and vice versa, and in the material surrounding Peter’s confession in John 6 the ‘way of the cross’ is also exhorted, albeit in different terms.
A third feature of the Synoptic calling motif is the programmatic calling of the twelve in Mark 3:13–19, followed fairly closely by Matt. 10:1–4 and Luke 6:12–16. Having gone up a mountain (Luke adds, ‘to pray’) Mark’s Jesus calls his disciples to be with him, followed by sending them out to preach and cast out demons. Here the names of the twelve are listed, although Mark’s reference to James and John as ‘sons of thunder’ (boanrges, Mark 3:17) is omitted in Matthew and Luke. While Mark uses the programmatic calling of the twelve as an occasion for exposing the unbelieving rejection of Jesus by the religious authorities, Matthew employs it as a platform for sending out the twelve in apostolic ministry (Matt. 10:5–16), harmonizing this passage with Jesus’ sending out the twelve in Mark 6:7. Matthew adds ‘first’ before the name of Peter (Matt. 10:2), whose primacy is noted elsewhere in Matthean perspective (Matt. 16:17–19; 18:21–35), and Luke refers to Simon the Canaanean as ‘the zealot’ (Luke 6:15). Luke includes a briefer reference to the ministry of the twelve (connecting the material expanded by Matthew with a unit likely from Q, presenting it elsewhere as the sending out of the seventy, Luke 10:1–12), but then uses the event as an introduction to Jesus’ sermon on the plain (Luke 6:17–49). In all these passages the calling of the twelve is featured programmatically as a platform for Jesus’ expanded ministry – likely rooted in preaching about Jesus, gathered into a narrative by Mark. The mention of ‘the twelve’ in John, however, follows Peter’s confession, whereupon Jesus declares, ‘I did not call you, the twelve [i.e. to escape suffering and martyrdom], and yet one of you is a devil’ (John 6:70).22
By contrast, the calling narrative in John 1:35–51 is less programmatic and more incidental. Rather than Jesus being presented as taking the initiative (as in John 6:6), it is John the Baptist who plays the role of initiatory agent, pointing his own disciples to Jesus. An unnamed disciple and Andrew therefore follow Jesus and stay with him, as it is near the end of the day. Andrew then brings his brother Simon to Jesus, whom Jesus nicknames Kphas, the Aramaic word for ‘rock’ (translated Petros). Jesus then decides to go to Capernaum, and upon finding Philip from Bethsaida (described as the city of Andrew and Peter) invites him to ‘follow me’. Philip then finds Nathanael (later noted as ‘of Cana’, John 21:2), who is described by Jesus as one in whom there is nothing false. Interestingly, in only one case does Jesus call one of these five individuals to be his follower; others simply come to Jesus or are brought by others to him. A good deal of this presentation seems unplanned and spontaneous, and yet the results are highly theological, as Christological affirmations are extensive. John declares Jesus to be ‘the Lamb of God’ (vv. 29, 36), his first followers call Jesus Rabbi (translated ‘teacher’, v. 38), Andrew declares they had found the Messias (translated ‘Christ’, v. 41), Philip declares Jesus to be ‘the one of whom Moses and the prophets wrote – Jesus, Son of Joseph from Nazareth’ (v. 45), Nathanael refers to Jesus as ‘the Son of God’ and ‘the King of Israel’ (v. 49), and Jesus refers to himself as ‘the Son of Man’ (v. 51).
Using Brown’s distinction between preaching tradition and traditional memory, several things become apparent. First, given the multiplicity of accounts, it is not implausible that Jesus may have exhorted people to follow him at various times – at the beginning but also elsewhere during his ministry – inviting discipleship and yet warning of its costs and implications. And, he may have indeed called individuals as well as groups, perhaps more than once. Thus, it could be that the callings of individuals and groups reflect traditional memory, preserved somewhat authentically in the various gospel accounts. A second point, though, is that elements of preaching and discipleship instruction are notable in bi-optic presentations of the calling narratives. Noting that Peter, for instance, is exhorted to follow Jesus more than once by the Lord, it is not unlikely that this became a part of his own preaching ministry, or preaching about him by others, accounting for some of the gospel emphases, especially those underlying Mark. Such a theme as the cost of discipleship was preached in all likelihood as a way of linking Jesus’ instructions with the challenging situations of believers in later generations, so even if it reflected later preaching, it cannot be divorced from historical tradition. Thirdly, the calling narratives in the Synoptics and in John served programmatic functions, although in different ways. While the naming of the twelve in Mark may have served a historical function, clarifying who the twelve apostles were, it also echoes the Jewish hope for the restoration of the twelve tribes of Israel scattered in the diaspora. Such also became a basis for apostolic leadership in the second and third generations of the Christian movement, which provided a basis for the emergence of institutional over familial forms of leadership. The programmatic function of the Johannine calling narrative appears more Christological and confessional, emphasizing a variety of convictions regarding Jesus as the Messiah/Christ. The other features of John 1, however, appear to be rooted in familiarity with places and persons rather than homiletical interests, so John 1:19–51 appears to have a fair bit of historical memory behind it as well as theological importance.
(Tom Thatcher, Catrin Willias: Engaging with C. H. Dodd on the Gospel of John: Sixty Years of Tradition and Interpretation, 2010, p. 187-190)

vs. 39 Accordingly, the two inquirers παρʼ αὐτῷ ἔμειναν τὴν ἡμέραν ἐκείην, “abode with Jesus that day,” sc. that eventful day which the narrator recalls (see on 11:49 for a like use of ἐκεῖνος). Perhaps it was the Sabbath day (see on 2:1). The addition “it was about the tenth hour” is, no doubt, a personal reminiscence. That is, it was ten hours after sunrise, or about 4 p.m., when the two disciples reached the place where Jesus was lodging.
(Bernard J.H, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel according to John, Volumes 1 & 2 (ICC))
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John 2:1-12
Moffatt favours yet a third Philonic explanation of the number 6, suggesting that the six ὑδρίαι correspond to Philo’s principle that six is the “most productive” (γονιμωτάτη) of numbers (decal. 30).These are desperate expedients of exegesis, and if Jn. really had any such notions in his mind when he said there were six waterpots prepared for the use of the wedding guests, he wrote more obscurely than is his wont. The truth is that mention of this unusually large number of ὑδρίαι is more reasonably to be referred to the observation of an eye-witness, who happened to remember the circumstance, than to elaborate symbolism of the narrative
(Bernard J.H, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel according to John, Volumes 1 & 2, (ICC), p. 83)

Although John’s point is clear enough, his mention of waterpots for purification requires explanation on a historical level. Since drawn water was not normally used, and Cana, at its probable site, received much more rainwater than Masada or other such sites, it is difficult to understand how John could have conceived of purificatory water found in pots or drawn from a well. (Many scholars have made much of the term “draw” in 2:8, but unless John employs that term symbolically the source in 2:8 is not likely a well; context takes precedence over usual word usage. The source of water for 2:8 is the pots of 2:7.)
(Craig Keener, The Gospel of John: A Commentary, Volumes 1 & 2, Baker Academic)

verse 2: The mention of Cana probably functions as historical reminiscence—perhaps Nathanael’s (who may also represent the connection with the groom’s family, since he was from there, 21:2)—and as a literary cue prefiguring the sign of 4:46–54 (presumably from the same source). In its latter function “Cana of Galilee” (2:1; 4:46) addresses the contrast implied between Galilee’s positive reception of Jesus (2:2; 4:47, 54; cf. 2:12; 4:43–45) and his rejection in Judea (cf. 2:13–25; 5:16).
(Craig Keener, The Gospel of John: A Commentary, Volumes 1 & 2, Baker Academic)

-Lee, Thought, 17; Roth, “Vessels.” Gamble, “Philosophy,” 51–52, regards the amount of jars as a historical reminiscence

(c) Certain details, such as numbers, are given, which could only be derived from an eye-witness. For example, at Cana there were six water-pots (2:6); the disciples had rowed twenty-five or thirty furlongs when Jesus came to them on the lake (6:19); Jesus’ tunic was without seam, woven from the top throughout (19:23).
(Barrett C.K. Gospel according to St John: An Introduction with Commentary and Notes on the Greek Text, p. 122)

The Synoptics do not mention the importance of stone vessels, yet John states that in Cana there were ‘six stone jars standing there for the Jewish rights of purification’ (2.6). This is a major datum that is grounded in Jesus’ time and place. Stone vessels have been found at the two sites vying for this ‘Cana’: Khirbet Kana and Kefer Kana. Stone vessels are designed for preserving the contents from ritual pollution, and they are found not only in the Upper City of Jerusalem but also in many sites of Lower Galilee especially the villages known to the historical Jesus. Almost all the stone vessels date from the time of Herod the Great to 70 ce , although some sites for manufacturing stone vessels continued in Lower Galilee, notably just outside Nazareth. In this one particular example, John is more reliable than the Synoptics and the tradition makes appropriate sense in pre-70 Jewish settings when the Temple authorities were mandating ritual purity for all Jews in Palestine. Moreover, when John reports that the miracle in Cana was ‘the first of his signs’ (2.11), the comment fits well with the Jewish emphasis on signs found in Josephus, Pseudo-Philo (LAB), and in other early Jewish texts. Second, John alone has knowledge of Jerusalem’s architecture.
(James H. Charlesworth: The Historical Jesus in the Fourth Gospel: A Paradigm Shift? Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus 8 (2010) 3–46 © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010 DOI 10.1163/174551909X12607965419559 brill.nl/jshj)

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John 3:22-30
If we are pressed to reconstruct even further the relations between 1:19–34 and 3:22–30, we may suggest that the scene in 3:22–30 originally followed shortly after that of 1:19–34. John the Baptist is no longer at Bethany across the Jordan but at Aenon near Salim. Jesus, who was baptized by John the Baptist, is now in the Jordan valley conducting his own ministry of baptism and followed by the disciples (3:22) whom John the Baptist had sent to him. In 3:22–30 we have John the Baptist’s testimony at Aenon to another group of his disciples. This all takes place before Jesus’ ministry in Galilee, where he will abandon the baptizing ministry and begin to concentrate on teaching. It is precisely that change in the way Jesus was conducting himself (a change that took place after John the Baptist was imprisoned) which led John the Baptist to send from prison to inquire if, after all, Jesus was really the one to come (Luke 7:20). Thus, we believe that 3:22–30, if understood properly, gives us very reliable information about the early days of Jesus, material not preserved in the Synoptics but which Dodd, Tradition, pp. 279–87, correctly classifies as very ancient. There is no plausible theological reason why anyone would have invented the tradition that Jesus and his disciples once baptized. The practice of Christian Baptism certainly did not need such support; and, as a matter of fact, the information that Jesus once imitated John the Baptist in baptizing would be a dangerous weapon in the hands of the sectarians of John the Baptist (whence probably the modification in 4:2).
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries, p. 154)
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John 4:1-42
Its intrinsic claim to plausibility has merit. The mise en scène is one of the most detailed in John, and the evangelist betrays a knowledge of local color and Samaritan beliefs that is impressive. We may mention: the well at the foot of Gerizim; the question of legal purity in vs. 9; the spirited defense of the patriarchal well in vs. 12; the Samaritan belief in Gerizim and the Prophet-like-Moses. And if we analyze the repartee at the well, we find quite true-to-life the characterization of the woman as mincing and coy, with a certain light grace (Lagrange, p. 101). Though characters like Nicodemus, this woman, the paralytic of ch. 5, and the blind man of ch. 10 are—to a certain extent—foils used by the evangelist to permit Jesus to unfold his revelation, still each has his or her own personal characteristics and fitting lines of dialogue. Either we are dealing with a master of fiction, or else the stories have a basis in fact.The solemn discourse of Jesus seems to be the main obstacle to historical plausibility. Granting that this discourse has been shaped by the Johannine technique of misunderstanding, plays on words, etc., we may still wonder if a Samaritan woman would have been expected to understand even the most basic ideas of the discourse. The answer to this question is impeded by our limited knowledge of Samaritan thought in the 1st century a.d. In Judaism, two of the expressions used by Jesus, “the gift of God,” and “living water,” were used to describe the Torah. If Samaritan usage was the same, the woman could have understood that Jesus was presenting himself and his doctrine as the replacement of the Torah in which the Samaritans believed. As we pointed out in the Notes on vss. 19 and 25 the woman seems to understand Jesus’ claims against the background of the Samaritan expectation of the Taheb. Therefore, it is not at all impossible that even in the conversation we have echoes of a historical tradition of an incident in Jesus’ ministry. We shall see that the dialogue with the disciples has Synoptic parallels.
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries, p. 175-176)

5 Sychar is perhaps to be identified with the village called Askar, near Shechem. There is a reference to Jacob’s buying of a piece of ground in this vicinity (Gen. 33:19). He also gave some land to Joseph (Gen. 48:22), and he was buried there (Josh. 24:32). There is no Old Testament reference to his having dug a well there, but there is nothing improbable about it.Biblical Shechem is the modern Balata, near Nablus. Some scholars hold that Sychar was really Shechem, Sychar being a mocking corruption, meaning either “drunken-town” (שֵׁכָר) or “lying-town” (שֶׁקֶר). Against this are the facts that (a) we know of nothing to justify either title, and (b) from early times Sychar has been distinguished from Shechem. W. F. Albright argues that the town was Shechem and that the corruption into Sychar was accidental (so also Brown). He regards the evidence of the Old Syriac as significant and accounts for the differentiation between the two places by the fact that Shechem was destroyed c. a.d. 67 and rebuilt a few miles away under the name Neapolis (corrupted to the modern Nablus). See The Archaeology of Palestine (Harmondsworth, 1949), pp. 247–48; BNT, p. 160. R. D. Potter favors Askar. Of the topographical references in this chapter he says, “No passage could show better that our author knew this bit of Samaria well” (SE, I, p. 331).
(Morris, Leon, The Gospel according to John, NICNT)

We learn for the first time of the Pharisees’ hearing of Jesus’ making and baptizing more disciples than John. These Pharisees will prove to be Jesus’ enemies soon enough (7:32). So far they have appeared as authorities responsible for the rather hostile questioning of John (1:19), and one of them, Nicodemus, has shown himself unable to comprehend Jesus (3:1-21). Enough has been said about Pharisees that the careful reader will understand why Jesus leaves Judea for Galilee (v. 3), when he gets this word. The Pharisees are based in Jerusalem (1:19, 24) and Jesus wants to avoid them.That Jesus was baptizing has been indicated in 3:23 and the word of John’s disciples to their teacher (v. 26) has already informed us that at least a majority of those who have come out to be baptized are going to Jesus. Now, however, we are suddenly informed that not Jesus, but his disciples, were baptizing (v. 2). This rather awkward interjection looks like an effort to square John’s account with the Synoptics (cf. 3:24). Yet even there we do not read that Jesus’ disciples baptized. The distinctively Johannine notion that Jesus (or his disciples) baptized more than John proves Jesus is the superior of John. On the other hand, it puts him in the same category as John. One suspects this is an ancient tradition, if not a historical fact, that the Synoptics have suppressed or ignored.John has the geography straight (vv. 3-4), as he has Jesus arrive at the Samaritan city (or village) of Sychar (v. 5). Many commentators have identified Sychar as modern Askar, although two ancient Syrian manuscripts read “Shechem,” a nearby ancient city, which had been destroyed over a century and a half before by the Hasmonean John Hyrcanus. Both were in Samaria near Jacob’s well, Shechem even closer to it than Askar. The plot of ground Jacob gave his son Joseph seems to be mentioned in Gen 48:22 (cf. 33:18-20), but there is no mention of Jacob’s well specifically in the Old Testament. A Jacob’s well still exists near Askar today (see Schnackenburg 1968, 424, for a description). The scene is set with Jesus at the well, tired from his journey, at midday (v. 6). (The text actually says “the sixth hour,” which by ancient Jewish reckoning would be noon.) Although John does not say it, the reader of Scripture would know that Jacob was named Israel by God (Gen 35:10), so Jacob’s well is Israel’s well, and “Israel” is still a good name in John, even if “Jew” is not.
(D. Moody Smith, John, Abingdon New Testament Commentaries, p. 109-110)

  1. Jacob’s well. A well about 100 feet deep is first mentioned in this area in Christian pilgrim sources of the 4th century; Jacob’s well is not mentioned in the OT. The site presently identified as Jacob’s well at the foot of Mount Gerizim can be accepted with confidence. The descriptions of ch. 4 show a good knowledge of the local Palestinian scene
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries, p. 169)

4:18: But the simplest interpretation is the best. The narrative is a genuine reminiscence of an incident that actually happened, recorded many years after the event, and probably—so far as the words of the conversation are concerned—with much freedom. That Jesus expressed Himself so tersely and even enigmatically, to an ignorant woman, as the deep saying of v. 14 would suggest, without explaining what He said more fully, is improbable. On the other hand, the vividness and simplicity of the story have the note of actuality. The narrative brings out clearly the main features of the interview between Jesus and the woman, and it is easy to follow the general lines of their conversation.
(Bernard J.H, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel according to John, Volumes 1 & 2 (ICC))

27 Jesus’ disciples have gone unmentioned since v. 8, when we learned that they “had gone into the town to buy provisions.” Now they are back, interrupting Jesus’ conversation with the woman before she can respond to his abrupt claim that he is “the Messiah” she knows is coming. They are “surprised,” not that he is speaking with a Samaritan (they, after all, had just come from shopping in a Samaritan town), but that he is speaking with a woman. Their reference to “speaking” echoes Jesus’ own “I who am speaking to you” (v. 26, italics added), accenting the irony that the One “speaking with a woman” is none other than “the Messiah, who is called Christ”! The Gospel writer seems to know that they were surprised even though they said nothing, and takes the liberty of supplying two questions which they might have asked but did not: “What are you looking for?” and “What are you speaking with her about?” The implication is that they wanted to ask these questions but did not dare (compare 16:5, 19; 21:12). The Gospel writer could not have known such a thing without being an eyewitness, and even then the disciples would have had to have voiced the questions, at least to one another (as they will in v. 33).
(Michaels J. Ramsey, The Gospel of John, NICNT)
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John 5:1-18
Is John’s account of the healing plausible as primitive tradition about Jesus? The setting in vss. 1–3 is a bit more elaborate than usual for stories of healing; yet the Synoptics, as in Mark 2:1–2, do not hesitate to give more elaborate introductions when it is necessary for the development of the narrative. Actually, the Johannine introduction is of importance for the plot, as we see in the reference to the pool in vs. 7. The factual details found in the introduction, as we have pointed out in the Notes, are very accurate. They betray a knowledge of Jerusalem that militates against a late or non-Palestinian origin of the story.The account of the healing in vss. 5–9 resembles the ordinary Synoptic healing narrative (for detail see Dodd, Tradition, p. 175—our Notes on vss. 5, 6, 9); and there are also Synoptic parallels in vss. 13 and 14. We shall discuss below the problem posed by 9b–13; but in general there is nothing to persuade us that the basic narrative underlying vss. 1–15 is a creation of the evangelist. The story of the healing seems to stem from primitive tradition about Jesus.
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries, p. 209)

  1. temple precincts. The pool lay just north-northeast of the temple area—another indication of the evangelist’s knowledge of Jerusalem in the days before the Roman destruction.
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries, p. 208)

The language of Jn. 5:8, 9 closely resembles that of Mk. 2:11, 12, although the stories are quite distinct. Jn. may have availed himself of the words of the earlier evangelist to describe a somewhat similar scene at which he was not present, and of which he could not give the exact report of an eye-witness.
(Bernard J.H, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel according to John, Volumes 1 & 2, (ICC) p. 634)

John cites the pool by its “Hebrew” name, but, while our current manuscripts have variants of the name (e.g., “Bethzatha”), “Bethesda” seems to be the most likely reading, especially in view of Qumran’s Copper Scroll. The pool is near the “sheep gate” (5:2), which, like the rest of old Jerusalem, was near the temple (Neh 3:31–32; 12:39–40; cf. John 2:14–15). A lame man might be excluded from some sacred precincts (Lev 21:18; cf. 2 Sam 5:8), but certainly not from the vicinity of the Temple Mount. Locating the pool by the “sheep gate” is probably a historical remembrance, but it might also serve to further connect the narrative with ch. 9, where the healed man is one of the sheep, and those who seek to lead him elsewhere are those who ignore the true “sheep gate” (John 10:1–4, 7–8).
(Craig Keener, The Gospel of John: A Commentary, Volumes 1 & 2, Baker Academic) and similarly (Selkin, “Exegesis,” p. 188–89.).

vs. 14-15
Thus, whether or not vss. 14–15 were always part of the multiplication scene, we believe that in these verses John has given us an item of correct historical information. The ministry of miracles in Galilee culminating in the multiplication (which in John, as in Mark, is the last miracle of the Galilee ministry) aroused a popular fervor that created a danger of an uprising which would give authorities, lay and religious, a chance to arrest Jesus legally. The age of this Johannine information may be judged by the contrary tendency to remove from the Gospels anything that might give substance to the Jewish charge that Jesus was a dangerous political figure. If John was written toward the end of the century when Roman persecution of Christians under Domitian was all too real, then the invention of the information in vss. 14–15 seems out of the question
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries)
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2020.06.05 02:29 pierian_spring The Church's History with Racism

I come from a long line of TBMs and I was one for most of my life. My transition out of the church was spurred by LGBT issues, the church's history with race, and a comparison between the two. At one point, I wrote my dad a long e-mail documenting my feelings about the church's history with race and a number of resources. I feel like it is prudent to share with this group in light of all that is happening now, especially because many TBM's are sharing Nelson's post and/or trying to say the church was persecuted in Missouri for treating African Americans like people. Enjoy this far too long letter:
Hi Dad,
At some point, I would like to talk with you about an issue that really really bothers me, and I think is indicative of how the church will handle the LGBT issues going forward, and that in my mind really undermines any claim to divine leadership from the church. It seems to me that Church leadership changes over time and contradicts itself on who qualifies for the priesthood, salvation and the celestial kingdom—key doctrinal points, not esoteric non-salvation oriented tangential “deep doctrine.” Today I want to talk about the church’s history with people that have black skin.
To be upfront about my emotional state on this, I am angry about the church’s history here and am ashamed to be associated with such bigoted, violent and hateful rhetoric. I want to have a conversation, but not start an argument, especially because I am very doubtful that I will change my mind on the subject. You mentioned in one of our previous conversations that you wanted me to know that you are aware of and have been seriously bothered by some issues (you weren’t clear on which ones, but I presume this is one). In my view, men that claim to be prophets that screw up this badly, cause significant lasting damage, and get such fundamental points of doctrine wrong (like who qualifies for heaven) are not entitled to my trust. I think past presidents of the church were clearly not led by a loving God that is no respector of persons. I think this history undermines the claims that God won’t allow the president of the church to lead the church astray because the church has followed this “bad” precedent for more than half of its history, and has only fully incorporated black people in the last 40 years. If past presidents screwed up this badly, there is no reason that current presidents cannot make similar blunders and I am no longer willing to outsource my morality based on what the leadership of the church claims is “true” “divine” or “doctrine”
The gospel topics essays from the church state “Today, the Church disavows the theories advanced in the past that black skin is a sign of divine disfavor or curse, or that it reflects unrighteous actions in a premortal life; that mixed-race marriages are a sin; or that blacks or people of any other race or ethnicity are inferior in any way to anyone else. Church leaders today unequivocally condemn all racism, past and present, in any form.” https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/manual/gospel-topics/race-and-the-priesthood?lang=eng
There is a lot to unpack here, and I will try to be succinct with my questions but will provide significant evidence and sources. Please speak up if you have an concerns about the quality or veracity of my sources.
  1. In your view, does the church topics essay mean the church is “disavowing” certain parts of the scriptures, for example, 2 Nephi 5:20-21 “20 Wherefore, the word of the Lord was fulfilled which he spake unto me, saying that: Inasmuch as they will not hearken unto thy words they shall be cut off from the presence of the Lord. And behold, they were cut off from his presence. 21 And he had caused the cursing to come upon them, yea, even a sore cursing, because of their iniquity. For behold, they had hardened their hearts against him, that they had become like unto a flint; wherefore, as they were white, and exceedingly fair and delightsome, that they might not be enticing unto my people the Lord God did cause a skin of blackness to come upon them.” See also Jacob 3:5, 3 Nephi 2: 15, and Moses 7:8. If so, what does that mean for the validity of the scriptures? If not, how do you reconcile the essay and the scriptures that seems at odds.
  2. Is a Church committee disavowing what was taught as doctrine (but in the church topics essays dismissed as “theories”) by prior presidents of the church? I have so many follow up questions to this, but I think they largely boil down to “how can I trust current leadership when past leadership screwed up so badly and dug in their heels?” and “Wouldn’t it be better for me to trust my own internal moral compass than outsource it to church leadership, because I would much rather stand on the side of those that are being singled out and told they aren’t worthy (by no fault of their own, at least in this life) rather than in the safety of a “prophet” that claims to speak for God?” there is also an administrative and theological issue with an unnamed church committee and scholars (rather than a current church president) overruling the past presidents of the church that claim to be the only living person to have all the keys of the kingdom. For example past teachings are in question bullet points under 3:
  3. Do you believe anything that is taught by church leaders in my below excerpts? If not, how to you reconcile these teachings with your faith in their divine mandate? There are literally dozens, if not hundreds of these types of quotes spread throughout the church’s teachings by presidents of the church and the quorum of the 12. I have tried to pick the best representations and most troublesome
Origin of black skin as a curse and divinely authorized slavery:
Joseph Smith Jr claimed slavery was of God and that Blacks were the sons of Ham that deserved slavery. “It is my privilege then, to name certain passages from the bible, and examine the teachings of the ancients upon this matter, as the fact is uncontrovertable, that the first mention we have of slavery is found in the holy bible, pronounced by a man who was perfect in his generation and walked with God. And so far from that prediction’s being averse from the mind of God it remains as a lasting monument of the decree of Jehovah, to the shame and confusion of all who have cried out against the South, in consequence of their holding the sons of Ham in servitude! https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/paper-summary/letter-to-oliver-cowdery-circa-9-april-1836/2
Brigham Young repeated the same ideas. “I will remark with regard to slavery, inasmuch as we believe in the Bible, inasmuch as we believe in the ordinances of God, in the Priesthood and order and decrees of God, we must believe in slavery. This colored race have been subjected to severe curses, which they have in their families and their classes and in their various capacities brought upon themselves. And until the curse is removed by Him who placed it upon them, they must suffer under its consequences; I am not authorized to remove it. I am a firm believer in slavery. . . . When the Lord God cursed old Cain, He said, ‘Until the last drop of Abel’s blood receives the Priesthood, and enjoys the blessings of the same, Cain shall bear the curse;’ then Cain is calculated to have his share next and not until then; consequently, I am firm in the belief that they ought to dwell in servitude.” Speech by Governor Brigham Young in Joint Session of the Legislature Giving Counsel on a Bill in Relation to African Slavery Salt Lake City, Friday, 23 January 1852 cited in The Complete Discourses of Brigham Young, ed. Richard S. Van Wagoner (Salt Lake City: Smith-Pettit Foundation, 2009), 1:473-74; The Teachings of President Brigham Young, Volume 3: 1852-1854, comp. and ed. Fred C. Collier (Salt Lake City: Collier’s Publishing, 1987), 26-29 available at http://mit.irr.org/brigham-young-we-must-believe-in-slavery-23-january-1852
If not cursed from their ancestors, Harold B. Lee suggests black people were less valiant in the pre-earth life. “The privilege of obtaining a mortal body on this earth is seemingly so priceless that those in the spirit world, even though unfaithful or not valiant, were undoubtedly permitted to take mortal bodies although under penalty of racial or physical or nationalistic limitations.” (Harold. B. Lee, Decisions for Successful Living)
Not only was Cain called upon to suffer [for killing Abel], but because of his wickedness he became the father of an inferior race. A curse was placed upon him and that curse has been continued through his lineage and must do so while time endures. Millions of souls have come into this world cursed with a black skin and have been denied the privilege of Priesthood and the fulness of the blessing of the Gospel. These are the descendants of Cain. Moreover, they have been made to feel their inferiority and have been separated from the rest of mankind from the beginning. Enoch saw the people of Canaan, descendants of Cain, and he says, "and there was a blackness came upon all the children of Canaan, that they were despised among all people." . . . In the spirit of sympathy, mercy and faith, we will also hope that blessings may eventually be given to our negro brethren, for they are our brethren—children of God—notwithstanding their black covering emblematical of eternal darkness (The Way to Perfection, by Joseph Fielding Smith, Genealogical Society of Utah, 1935, pp. 101-102).
“The attitude of the Church with reference to the Negroes remains as it has always stood. It is not a matter of the declaration of a policy but of direct commandment from the Lord, on which is founded the doctrine of the Church from the days of its organization, to the effect that Negroes may become members of the Church but that they are not entitled to the Priesthood at the present time. The prophets of the Lord have made several statements as to the operation of the principle” (Official statement of the First Presidency to BYU President Ernest L. Wilkinson, dated August 17, 1951, quoted in John Lewis Lund, The Church and the Negro, p. 89).
Interracial marriage prohibition:
Brigham Young claimed the Law of God demanded instant capital punishment for interracial marriage and would never change. “Shall I tell you the law of God in regard to the African race? If the white man who belongs to the chosen seed mixes his blood with the seed of Cain, the penalty, under the law of God, is death on the spot. This will always be so. The nations of the earth have transgressed every law that God has given, they have changed the ordinances and broken every covenant made with the fathers, and they are like a hungry man that dreameth that he eateth, and he awaketh and behold he is empty.” Brigham Young, (March 8, 1863.) Journal of Discourses 10:110 available at https://www.fairmormon.org/answers/Journal_of_Discourses/10/25#110
George Albert Smith reaffirmed Brigham Youngs position in May 1947: Furthermore, your ideas, as we understand them, appear to contemplate the intermarriage of the Negro and White races, a concept which has heretofore been most repugnant to most normal-minded people from the ancient patriarchs till now. God’s rule for Israel, His Chosen People, has been endogamous. Modern Israel has been similarly directed. We are not unmindful of the fact that there is growing tendency, particularly among some educators, as it manifests itself in this area, toward the breaking down of race barriers in the matter of intermarriage between whites and blacks, but it does not have the sanction of the Church and is contrary to Church doctrine.” (LDS First Presidency (George Albert Smith), letter to Virgil H. Sponberg, May 5, 1947)
Partial Blessings of the Gospel:
Blacks “cannot share in the Priesthood; they cannot bear rule; they cannot bear rule in any place until the curse is removed from them; they are a ‘servant of servants.’” Speech by Governor Brigham Young in Joint Session of the Legislature Giving Counsel on a Bill in Relation to African Slavery Salt Lake City, Friday, 23 January 1852 cited in The Complete Discourses of Brigham Young, ed. Richard S. Van Wagoner (Salt Lake City: Smith-Pettit Foundation, 2009), 1:473-74; The Teachings of President Brigham Young, Volume 3: 1852-1854, comp. and ed. Fred C. Collier (Salt Lake City: Collier’s Publishing, 1987), 26-29 available at http://mit.irr.org/brigham-young-we-must-believe-in-slavery-23-january-1852
George Albert Smith clearly stated that blacks don’t get the full blessings: “From the days of the Prophet Joseph even until now, it has been the doctrine of the Church, never questioned by any of the Church leaders, that the Negroes are not entitled to the full blessings of the Gospel. (LDS First Presidency (George Albert Smith), letter to Virgil H. Sponberg, May 5, 1947)
Other abhorrent quotes by church leadership:
“As a general thing that part of the Negro race that are in servile bondage, are much more comfortable and better provided for than the lower classes of the nations of Europe… When a master has a Negro and uses him well, he is much better off than if he was free.” Speech by Governor Brigham Young in Joint Session of the Legislature Giving Counsel on a Bill in Relation to African Slavery Salt Lake City, Friday, 23 January 1852 cited in The Complete Discourses of Brigham Young, ed. Richard S. Van Wagoner (Salt Lake City: Smith-Pettit Foundation, 2009), 1:473-74; The Teachings of President Brigham Young, Volume 3: 1852-1854, comp. and ed. Fred C. Collier (Salt Lake City: Collier’s Publishing, 1987), 26-29 available at http://mit.irr.org/brigham-young-we-must-believe-in-slavery-23-january-1852
“We must not inter-marry with the Negro. Why? If I were to marry a Negro woman and have children by her, my children would oil be cursed as to the priesthood. Do I want my children cursed as to the priesthood? If there is one drop of Negro blood in my children, as I have read to you, they receive the curse. There isn't any argument, therefore, as to inter-marriage with the Negro, is there?” Apostle Mark E. Peterson, “Race Problems – As They Effect the Church,” Address given at the Convention of Teachers of Religion on the College Level, delivered at BYU, August 27, 1954
"There is no doubt that the so-called civil rights movement as it exists today is used as a Communist program for revolution in America just as agrarian reform was used by the Communists to take over China and Cuba. This shocking statement can be confirmed by an objective study of Communist literature and activities and by knowledgeable Negroes and others who have worked within the Communist movement." (Elder Ezra Taft Benson Of the Council of the Twelve Apostles, Conference Report October 1967 pg 35-36 available at https://archive.org/details/conferencereport1967sa/page/n37
“If that Negro is faithful all his days, he can and will enter the celestial kingdom. He will go there as a servant, but he will get a celestial resurrection. He will get a place in the celestial glory. He will not go then with even the honorable men of the earth to the terrestrial glory, nor with the ones spoken of as being without law” (Apostle Mark E. Petersen, “Race Problems – as they affect the church" Address giving in Provo August 27, 1954, at the Convention of Teachers o Religion on the College level available at http://www.mormonthink.com/files/race-problems-affect-the-church-mark-e-peterson.pdf
"Negroes in this life are denied the Priesthood; under no circumstances can they hold this delegation of authority from the Almighty. (Abraham 1:20-27.) The gospel message of salvation is not carried affirmatively to them... negroes are not equal with other races where the receipt of certain spiritual blessings are concerned, particularly the priesthood and the temple blessings that flow therefrom, but this inequality is not of man’s origin. It is the Lord’s doing, is based an his eternal laws of justice, and grows out of the lack of Spiritual valiance of those concerned in their first estate." (Bruce R. McConkie, Mormon Doctrine)
“For what purpose,” by Alvin R. Dyer is just all kinds of Bad: “The reason that spirits are born into Negro bodies is because those spirits rejected the Priesthood of God in the pre-existence. This is the reason why you have Negros upon the earth. You will observe that when Cain was influenced by the power of Lucifer to follow him to fall down and worship him in the beginning, it was then that the Lord came to him and said, ‘Cain, if you will abide the law – if you will keep the commandments, you too can be acceptable to me. But Cain rejected the counsel of God. He rejected again the Priesthood as his forebearers had done in the preexistence. Therefore, the curse of the pre-existence was made institute through the loins of Cain. Consequently you have then, the beginning of the race of men and women into which would be born those in the pre-existence who had rejected the Priesthood of God. There was another division in the pre-existence – those who were not valiant in the acceptance of the Gospel. You see, there is a great difference between one who accepts and one who accepts and does something about it. We had a division in the pre-existence who did not reject the Priesthood, neither did they fully accept the plan of salvation that was advanced by the Christ. They, therefore, in accordance to the plan of the Gospel, became those of the lineage of adoption.” https://www.mrm.org/for-what-purpose-dyer
  1. Not really a question, but to add context to our discussion: One of the greatest issues I have with the church is the church’s unwillingness to accept fault or apologize. They even have new testament scripture that talks about seeing through a glass darkly. Instead, they try to wipe the slate clean and ignore the pain and culture that they created, and blame God. I am well aware of Bruce R. McConkie’s explanation for all this horrible stuff, and I find it lacking for several reasons, not the least of which is that it was said at a CES educators conference, and not at general conference by the leader of the church.
“Forget everything that I have said, or what President Brigham Young or President George Q. Cannon or whomsoever has said in days past that is contrary to the present revelation. We spoke with a limited understanding and without the light and knowledge that now has come into the world. We get our truth and our light line upon line and precept upon precept. We have now had added a new flood of intelligence and light on this particular subject, and it erases all the darkness and all the views and all the thoughts of the past. They don’t matter any more. It doesn’t make a particle of difference what anybody ever said about the Negro matter before the first day of June of this year, 1978. It is a new day and a new arrangement, and the Lord has now given the revelation that sheds light out into the world on this subject. As to any slivers of light or any particles of darkness of the past, we forget about them. We now do what meridian Israel did when the Lord said the gospel should go to the Gentiles. We forget all the statements that limited the gospel to the house of Israel, and we start going to the Gentiles.” https://speeches.byu.edu/talks/bruce-r-mcconkie/alike-unto-god/
The above quote is infuriating, but in my view is the best defense anyone in the quorum of the 12 or above have ever given. He literally asks us to “Forget” everything that was taught for over 100 years. He literally acknowledges that this is a “new arrangement.” I also find the comparison to taking the gospel to the gentiles to be a very poor. I’m not aware of Jesus ever advocating that gentiles couldn’t get into the best heaven, are racially inferior, and should be killed on site for marrying a different race. His explanation also implies that God willfully let the past presidents of the church flounder in darkness while withholding the essential ordinances of salvation from people.
President Nelson’s recent address to BYU about the change in policy from 2015 to 2019 followed a similar pattern. Both policy decisions were dictated by God, but God, in his omniscience, failed to consider the pain people would feel, and it was President Nelson who pleaded with God to be more kind—he was “grieved” for the “heartache” the 2015 policy caused. https://speeches.byu.edu/talks/russell-m-nelson/love-laws-god/.
This talk is also infuriating for many reasons, including President broad statements that cannot be true for example “Sometimes we as leaders of the Church are criticized for holding firm to the laws of God, defending the Savior’s doctrine, and resisting the social pressures of our day. But our commission as ordained apostles is ‘to go into all the world to preach [His] gospel unto every creature.’ That means we are commanded to teach truth. In doing so, sometimes we are accused of being uncaring as we teach the Father’s requirements for exaltation in the celestial kingdom. But wouldn’t it be far more uncaring for us not to tell the truth—not to teach what God has revealed? It is precisely because we do care deeply about all of God’s children that we proclaim His truth. We may not always tell people what they want to hear. Prophets are rarely popular. But we will always teach the truth!” If prophets always teach the truth, what am I to make of the above teachings about black people that have now been disavowed as “theories?” Also, President Nelson also claims that “God has not changed his definition of marriage” which is ironic coming from the leader of a church that was famous for polygamy and then abandoned it, and currently practices eternal polygamy—President Nelson has been sealed to two women!
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2020.05.28 22:44 APoL0x End-Time prophecies (which are hapenning now) explained

Old Testament:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-YpbFZqpXyQ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FafahUCl3z8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0JEkM0imfok

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1R9KXMrdXHU

New Testament:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cG583REHGfo

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tNOlxoPWl48

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=270TG23ZmKc

Chronology:

Once the order of the eschatological events that will occur at the end of time is clear (Parousia or Second Coming of Jesus, resurrection of all men, just and unjust, their congregation in the Valley of Jehoshaphat in front of Mount Zion where God will establish His glorious throne to judge the nations, the rapture of the righteous living and dead immediately after the Judgment, eternal damnation for the wicked, the remnant of saved Jews on Mount Zion, and the future construction of the Third Temple to give glory to the God of Israel), one must ask when or when approximately these events could take place (Matthew 24:36-44). To calculate and situate possible dates we will take the Old Testament Book of Daniel where we are told that all the prophecies described there (resurrection and Last Judgement) would take place after the end of the diaspora and dispersion of the Jewish people through the nations of the world: Daniel 12:7, that is, after the creation of the State of Israel and the subsequent reunion of all the Jews in their millennial land. One might therefore ask why all these events have not already occurred, or might have occurred in 1965 or 1980 for example, both dates after the creation of the State of Israel. Presumably, there would still be a prudent time (70 years or a biblical generation may be that prudent time, in which the Jews would gradually return in different waves to their homeland: Ezekiel 39:28-29). Let us recall the different operations carried out by the Mossad to transport Jews from their places of exile to Israel: Operation Magic Carpet), Operation Solomon, among others, to transport Jews to Israel from Yemen and Ethiopia respectively, or the current migratory waves currently managed and facilitated by the Jewish Agency, in charge of Jewish immigration to Eretz Israel. Furthermore, it is important to know that Jews and Judaism as the official religion will carry out during this time an important rite: their deep repentance and sorrow for the rebellions against God carried out in the past (Ezekiel 39:23-27) which will be translated into prayers and supplications in front of the Wailing Wall or Western Wall (Kotel in Hebrew). This has been true since Israel conquered and annexed the eastern part of Jerusalem during the Six-Day War in 1967. In Ezekiel 43:8 there is an explicit reference or mention of the Western Wall.
70 years after the creation of the State of Israel, it would place us on the date of 2018, the date from which all these events could begin to take place. We will now take another chapter from Daniel to inquire into the possible date on which the Antichrist might appear: Daniel 9:24-27. Daniel 9:25 tells us that "from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.” This prophecy is an overdetermined symbol, that is, it can be interpreted in various directions. From the historical point of view, it could refer to the time that has passed since the reconstruction of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah until the appearance of Jesus Christ. The other interpretation could refer to the last historical reconstruction of the Old City of Jerusalem and its walls that was carried out in the year 1537 by Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. We are told that 69 weeks, or 483 years, would pass from this moment until the appearance of the Antichrist. 1537 + 483 = 2020 would be the year of the last week (2020-2027) in which the Antichrist would carry out his work. These dates also have a great symbolic content, because if we take as a quite probable date the birth of Jesus Christ in 7 "BC", or in December of that year, we would have to begin His public ministry at the age of 30 or in 24 "AD" and he would be crucified, dead and buried at the age of 33 in 27 "AD". This makes some sense, and it would tell us that the Parousia or Second Coming of Jesus to end the Antichrist (2 Thessalonians 2:8-12) and his troops (Daniel 11:31; Zechariah 14) would take place just 2000 years after his crucifixion. All of these dates make sense, but they may be approximate. The rebuilding of the Old City of Jerusalem and its walls by Suleiman the Magnificent may have taken place a little before or after 1537. We would therefore be talking about a margin of error of about ±5 years. In any case, it seems clear that all these events are imminent, given the current religious-political-social situation in the Middle East.

The two Messiahs theory in Jewish eschatology

It is well known that Jewish eschatology recognizes two future Messiahs yet to appear, who would carry out the mission of redemption of the Jewish people and restoration of the kingdom of Israel announced by the Prophets in the Tanakh (Old Testament for Christians). One of them is known as Messiah ben Joseph (Mashiach ben Yoseph), that is, a human figure, a warrior or military leader who would fight on behalf of Israel in the war of the last days. He is called thus (ben Joseph) because it is believed that he would be a descendant of the biblical patriarch Joseph, through his son Ephraim, (for he is also known as Messiah ben Ephraim).
The other Messiah is known as Messiah ben David (Mashiach ben David), and may well be the conception that we Christians have of Jesus at His Parousia or Second Coming (Revelation 19:11-21; Jude 1:14-15).
It is important to note this theory of the two Messiahs, for it is confusing. The Jewish eschatology establishes the future coming of two Messiahs who would end the exodus and diaspora of the Jewish people, but it is not clear when this would occur or where these characters would appear. There is a Jewish tradition (one of many) that states that redemption would begin in Tiberias and the Sanhedrin would be reconstituted there (the city where it had its last clandestine session and where it was finally dissolved). According to this theory of tradition, the Messiah would emerge from Lake Tiberias, enter the city and then march to Safed where he would be enthroned or recognized as a messiah. It should be remembered that Tiberias and Safed are two of the four holy cities in Judaism (along with Jerusalem and Hebron). Another tradition in Judaism (here and here) states that the Messiah would emerge from the tomb of Shimon bar Yochai on Mount Meron from where he would march on a white donkey to Jerusalem via the city of Safed. It is precisely at the tomb of Shimon bar Yochai on Mount Meron that the festival of Lag BaOmer has been celebrated since the 16th century, instituted there by the Sephardic Kabbalist Isaac Luria and which commemorates two events: the cessation of the plague that had broken out among the disciples of Rabbi Akiva, and the second is that this date marks the anniversary of the death of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai.
Neither of these two Messiahs would be true, but we could identify the first one (the one who emerges from Lake Tiberias) as the Antichrist or the beast that rises from the abyss (Revelation 11:7; Revelation 13:1-8); that he "emerges" from Lake Tiberias could allude to the fact that he would seek to imitate the baptism of Christ in the Jordan River, since it is believed that this Messiah would really come from the east:

Legends abound as to why Suleiman closed the Gate. The most believable one is that while the walls were being rebuilt, a rumor swept Jerusalem that the Messiah was coming. Suleiman called together some Jewish rabbis and asked them to tell him about the Messiah. They described the Messiah as a great military leader who would be sent by God from the east. He would enter the Eastern Gate and liberate the city from foreign control.

"Coincidentally" there is a hadith in Islam where the following is said:

Anas b. Malik reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: The Dajjal would be followed by seventy thousand Jews of Isfahan wearing Persian shawls.

While the number "70,000" of Jews should not be taken literally, but could refer to "a large number," it is noteworthy how the city of Esfahan is mentioned, an Iranian city where some 1,500 Persian Jews currently reside and many of them claim to be "coincidentally" descendants of the tribe of Ephraim (remember that the Antichrist in Judaism was known as "Messiah ben Joseph" or "Messiah ben Ephraim"). That reference is made to the Dajjal (false prophet) and not to the Mahdi (Antichrist) could be a normal and systematic confusion between these two messianic figures and be the figure of the Mahdi (Antichrist) really being talked about here.
The second Messiah would be the false prophet or the beast that comes up out of the earth, capable of performing miracles (Revelation 13:11-18) and could correspond with another figure of Jewish eschatology known as Armilus, a figure comparable to the false prophet (Matthew 24:24) of Christian eschatology or the Dajjal of Islamic eschatology, a figure who according to Jewish eschatology would murder Messiah ben Joseph at the Golden Gate of Jerusalem and his body would lie in the streets of Jerusalem for 40 days, where it would remain intact. After this time the slain Messiah ben Joseph would rise again (Revelation 13:3, Daniel 9:26, this last prophecy of Daniel is another overdetermined symbol, and can refer both to the crucifixion of Christ and to the imitation that His counterpart, the Antichrist, will carry out).
These two Messiahs, along with Satan who would empower them (Revelation 13:2, i.e. the Dragon or Old Serpent) would form the evil or wicked Trinity who would seek to imitate Christ's death and resurrection. Not surprisingly, we have seen how one of them (the false prophet, who would appear on Mount Meron), would march on a white donkey on his way to Jerusalem, seeking to imitate Christ (Matthew 21:1-11). It is also important to note the relationship between two historical figures mentioned above: Rabbi Akiva and Shimon bar Yochai. The former was a rabbi from the first and second centuries AD who belonged to the generation of the Tannaim and was a great authority on halakha, Jewish law and tradition. He was a major contributor to the drafting of the Mishnah and the legal Midrashim and is widely regarded as the "father" of Rabbinic Judaism. He was martyred by the Romans at Caesarea in 135 AD. Shimon bar Yochai was a disciple of his and is considered by some to be the author of the Zohar, the fundamental work of the Kabbalah and Jewish mysticism. Others discuss this theory and point out Moses de León (Sephardic rabbi and kabbalist of the 13th century) as the author of the work. Shimon bar Yochai has been credited with numerous miracles during his lifetime, such as exorcising the daughter of Emperor Antoninus Pius. In any case, it is important to highlight here the relationship between master and disciple that exists between both. The former, considered the father of Rabbinic Judaism, died martyred by the Romans and his tomb is located precisely in Tiberias, from where tradition assures that the Messiah (one of them) would emerge. The second was considered a great mystic and miracle worker and his tomb is located on Mount Meron, from where tradition assures that the Messiah would arise (this would be the second, the beast coming up out of the earth of Revelation 13:11). Both could be two ordinary Jews, possessed or imbued with the spirit of both historical figures, just as John the Baptist was imbued with the spirit of Elijah (Matthew 17:12-13).
submitted by APoL0x to Christianity [link] [comments]


2020.05.25 03:48 SACRED-GEOMETRY Timeline of the Long Island Serial Killer case

This is a timeline I posted on /LISKiller. I thought I would share it here in light of recent updates in the case.
Cases with an asterisk* next to them are not officially linked to the Long Island Serial Killer. Although they are not conclusively linked I believe they should be included in the discussion. Victim names are italicized as there's dozens of names to keep track of.
Case summary:
  • The Long Island serial killer (LISK) is an unidentified serial killer who is believed to have murdered 10 to 16 people on Long Island, New York. Some people suspect multiple killers were operating in the same area. Most of the bodies were discovered during a search for Shannan Gilbert, who disappeared after seeing a client in May 2010. Her body was found in 2011. Police were recently ordered to release the audio recording of her 23 minute phone call to police the night we she went missing. This week detectives identified one of the victims using genetic genealogy.
You may find it helpful to use a map while reading:
February 1, 1982*
  • Tina Foglia (19) was last seen in the early morning hours of February 1, 1982 at a rock music venue in West Islip. Her dismembered body was discovered by Department of Transportation workers on February 3 along the shoulder of the Southern State Parkway. Her remains were placed in three separate plastic garbage bags, and were found a few miles north of the Robert Moses Causeway, which leads to Gilgo Beach and Oak Beach. A diamond ring that Foglia was known to wear was missing.
  • The DNA of an unknown male was found on the garbage bags. Police have not ruled out the possibility that Tina Foglia was an early victim of the Long Island Serial Killer.1
  • Tina Foglia:
April 20, 1996
  • Two female legs, wrapped in a plastic bag, are discovered on Fire Island west of Davis Park Beach.
  • The victim's skull would later be found on April 11, 2011 west of Tobay Beach in Nassau County and linked by DNA.1, 2
  • "Jane Doe No. 7 / Fire Island Jane Doe":
June 28, 1997
  • The dismembered torso of an unidentified young African-American female was found in Hempstead Lake State Park, New York. The torso was found in a green plastic container which was dumped next to a road. Both arms, head, and legs below the knee were severed and have not been located. The victim had a tattoo of a heart-shaped peach with a bite out of it on her left breast.1
  • On April 11, 2011, police in Nassau County discovered dismembered skeletal human remains inside a plastic bag near Jones Beach State Park, nicknamed "Jane Doe No. 3". DNA analysis identified this victim as the mother of "Baby Doe."2 She was found wearing gold jewelry similar to that of "Baby Doe."3
  • In December 2016, Peaches and Jane Doe No. 3 were positively identified as being the same person.4
  • "Jane Doe No. 3 / Peaches":
November 19, 2000
  • The body of a woman is discovered by hikers in the Long Island Pine Barrens in Manorville, off of Halsey Manor Road. She was a white woman in her 30s with brown hair. She had been dead for several weeks before her nude, headless body was found, cut into pieces and stuffed in plastic bags.
  • April 4, 2011, her head, hands and right foot were found in a plastic bag in the vicinity of Ocean Parkway on Gilgo Beach.1
  • On May 22, 2020 police in Long Island announced they had positively identified the “Manorville Jane Doe” and will be releasing her identity.2
  • "Jane Doe No. 6 / Manorville Jane Doe":
November 23, 2000*
  • Hunters found the body of a white or Hispanic man in his 20s with black hair in the woods off the eastbound side of the Long Island Expressway (LIE) near Exit 68 in North Shirley. He was wearing light blue-and-white striped GAP boxer shorts. He had "multiple traumatic injuries including crushed larynx" implying he was strangled.
July 26, 2003
  • A naked and dismembered torso, missing its head and hands, was discovered 45 miles east of Gilgo Beach in Manorville, New York.1 The victim was identified as Jessica Taylor (20), an escort from Washington, D.C. She was last seen days earlier at the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Manhattan.2 Taylor's torso was found atop a pile of scrap wood at the end of a paved access road off of Halsey Manor Road, just north of where it crosses the LIE. Plastic sheeting was found underneath the torso, and a tattoo on her body had been mutilated with a sharp instrument. Medical examiners determined the tattoo was a red heart with an angel wing that said, ‘‘Remy’s angel”.
  • On May 9, 2011, it was reported that the remains of a skull, a pair of hands, and a forearm found on March 29 at Gilgo were matched to Jessica Taylor.3
November 10, 2003*
  • A body was found south of the Long Island Expressway in Manorville. Hunters discovered the body in a wooded area several hundred yards from the expressway. Autopsy results were inconclusive (per the newspaper articles linked blow). The victim was Caucasian, 35 to 50 years old, about 5-foot-6 and had died up to four months earlier.1, 2
  • There is speculation that the body could have been dumped at the same time as Jessica Taylor's body.
  • There is not much information about this, aside from a few newspaper articles. Unable to find pages for this victim at DoeNetwork and NamUs. There was an IdentifyUs page that no longer works. If you find any information please contact me.
    • Newspaper articles: 1, 2
March 3, 2007*
  • A suitcase containing the dismembered torso of an unidentified Hispanic or light-skinned African-American female washed up on a beach at Harbor Island Park, in the town of Mamaroneck. One of her dismembered legs washed up at Cold Spring Harbor on March 21, 2007, and her other leg washed up at Oyster Bay in the village of Cove Neck the following day. The victim was determined to have been stabbed to death.1
  • The victim had a tattoo of two cherries on her left breast, which was similar in appearance to the tattoo found on Peaches. Never identified, the victim is referred to as "Cherries" by investigators. "Cherries" was dismembered in a fashion similar to three other victims: Jessica Taylor, "Peaches", and "Jane Doe No. 6", meaning she may be linked to the other official victims.
  • "Cherries":
July 9, 2007
  • Maureen Brainard-Barnes (25) is last seen in her room at the Super 8 Hotel in midtown Manhattan. Her last known call that night is to her sister, Missy, during which she says she is at Penn Station.
  • Shortly after her disappearance, a friend of Maureen's, Sara Karnes, received a call from a man on an unfamiliar number. The man claimed that he had just seen Maureen and that she was alive and staying at a “whorehouse in Queens”. He refused to identify himself and could not tell Karnes the location of the house. He told Karnes he would call back and give her the address, but he never called again. Karnes said that the man had no discernible New York or Boston accent.1
  • Her body was found in December 2010 located very close to three other victims.2, 3
June 27, 2008*
  • The dismembered remains of Tanya Rush (39) were found in Bellmore on a grassy shoulder of the Southern State Parkway, crammed into a small dark suitcase.1
    • Tanya Rush Websleuths threads: 1, 2
July 12, 2009
  • Melissa Barthelemy (24) was last seen outside her apartment on Underhill Avenue in the Bronx. At some point, the security camera of her local bank recorded her depositing $1,000 into her account, believed to be money she'd received from a date she’d had earlier that night. She withdrew $100 before heading out the door. Her boyfriend/pimp, John "Blaze" Terry, would later say that he knew Melissa had lined up another $1,000 date the next night, somewhere on Long Island. She went by the working name "Chloe."1
  • Shortly afterwards, her sister, Amanda, received 6-7 phone calls from a man using Melissa's cell phone and claiming to be her killer.2. The first calls were on July 16, July 19, and July 23 and the final call was on August 26. The calls were placed from crowded locations in New York City, including Madison Square Garden and Times Square. In one instance, police determined that Barthelemy’s phone had been turned on near Massapequa, Long Island, and that someone had gained access to her voice mail.3
  • Her body was discovered December 11, 2010 beside Ocean Parkway near Gilgo Beach.4
May 1, 2010*
  • Shannan Maria Gilbert (23) was a New Jersey woman who may have been a victim of the Long Island serial killer. Gilbert had been working as an escort. She left for a client's house (Brewer) in Oak Beach after midnight on May 1, 2010. At 4:51 in the morning, 911 dispatchers received a panicked phone call from Gilbert who can be heard saying that there was someone "after her" and that "they" were trying to kill her. She was last seen a short time later banging on the front door of a nearby Oak Beach residence and screaming for help before running off into the night. Neighbors Gus Coletti and Barbara Brennan are among the last to see her.1
  • On December 13, 2011, Gilbert's remains are found in a marsh, half a mile from where she was last seen.2 In May 2012, the Suffolk County medical examiners ruled that Gilbert accidentally drowned after entering the marsh. They believe that she was in a drug induced panic, and have concluded that her cause of death was "undetermined." Her family believes she was murdered.3
May 3, 2010*
  • Two days after Shannan Gilbert's disappearance, Dr. Peter Hackett, an Oak Beach resident and neighbor of Brewer, called Gilbert's mother, Mari Gilbert. He claimed he was taking care of Gilbert, and that he "ran a home for wayward girls." Three days later, he called the mother again, denying that he had any contact with her daughter.
    • Investigators later confirmed through phone records that Hackett called Mari twice following the disappearance. Telephone records show that calls were placed from Dr. Hackett's cellphone on May 3, 2010 and from his home phone on May 6 to Mari Gilbert's cellphone, and on the latter date from Dr. Hackett's home phone to Shannan's sister Sheree's cellphone.
  • The marshy area where Gilbert's remains were found was also noted as near Hackett's backyard. Gilbert's family filed a wrongful death suit against Hackett in November 2012, claiming that he took Gilbert into his home that morning and administered drugs to her, facilitating her death. Later police revealed that Hackett had a history of inserting himself into, or exaggerating his role in, certain major events. Police also noted that Hackett's wife and two children were home on the night of Gilbert's disappearance. Police later ruled out Hackett as a suspect in the deaths of Gilbert and the LISK victims.1
June 5, 2010
  • Megan Waterman (22) was last seen on June 5, 2010 heading toward a nearby convenience store on foot after leaving the Hauppauge Holiday Inn Express.
  • Her body is discovered on December 13, 2010, along with the bodies of Maureen Brainard-Barnes and Amber Lynn Costello. 1
  • On April 16, 2011, police seized the laptop of Waterman's boyfriend/pimp, Akeem Cruz, to search for records of clients that could lead them to the killer.2 In April, 2012, Cruz pled guilty to federal charges of transporting women across state lines to meet clients for sex.3 In 2013 he was sentenced to three years in prison.4
September 2, 2010
  • Amber Lynn Costello (27) leaves her home in North Babylon to meet a client, never to be seen alive again.
  • Her body is discovered on December 13, 2010, along with the bodies of Maureen Brainard-Barnes and Megan Waterman. 1
December 11, 2010
  • A Suffolk County Police canine unit investigating a missing persons case regarding Shannan Gilbert discover human skeletal remains at Gilgo Beach, three miles west of Robert Moses bridge, at 2:45 p.m. Police discover a full skeleton, wrapped in burlap, in the bramble beside Ocean Parkway near Gilgo Beach, three miles from Oak Beach.1 The remains are later identified as Melissa Barthelemy (24).
December 13, 2010
  • Near where Melissa Barthelemy (24) was found, police find three more sets of remains, also skeletons wrapped in burlap, later identified as Megan Waterman (22), Maureen Brainard-Barnes (25), and Amber Lynn Costello (27). The bodies are found in the same location, within 500 feet of each of other.1
December 15, 2010
  • The FBI offers up its forensic and investigative services in the case. Police seize a white SUV from the client's Oak Beach residence as part of the investigation.1
December 16, 2010
  • Suffolk County Medical Examiner reports the remains are all female victims and that Gilbert is not one of the four female bodies discovered. The ME's office holds a press event to explain forensic investigation approach.
December 17, 2010
  • Police hold a press conference to provide an update of the investigation, stating they had completed a comprehensive search of the beach area in both Nassau and Suffolk along Ocean Parkway.
January 19, 2011
  • Police identify one victim as Megan Waterman (22), a woman from Maine reported missing in June 2010 from Hauppauge, NY. Remaining three victim identities still unknown.
January 24-25?, 2011
  • Police reveal identities of three remaining victims, and Suffolk County District Attorney Thomas Spota declares the victims are the work of a serial killer.1 He also reveals all four worked as escorts using Craigslist ads. Police say the women were killed at different times, possibly a year apart in one case, and disposed of at different times.
  • Suffolk Police Commissioner Richard Dormer says beach search would resume once weather conditions improve in spring.
March 29, 2011
  • Police search teams return to Gilgo Beach to resume search for Shannan Gilbert.
March 30 2011
  • Police confirm discovery of more possible human remains at a site east of the original search location. Police find a skull, hands, and forearm, later verified to be additional remains of Jessica Taylor, the woman whose torso was found in Manorville in 2003. Other human remains are also found along Ocean Parkway, three quarters of a mile east of where the first four bodies were discovered.
March 31, 2011
  • Police rule out that the fifth set of remains discovered a mile east of the first four sets are not those of Shannan Gilbert (24), the missing New Jersey woman.
April 4, 2011
  • Police find three more sets of human remains along Ocean Parkway between Oak Beach and Gilgo Beach, bringing the body count to eight. An unidentified Asian male dressed in women’s clothing; the skull, hands, and foot of the first Manorville Jane Doe (discovered in 2000); and an unidentified girl between sixteen and thirty-two months old described as "Baby Doe".
  • Police later released a sketch of the Asian male. The cause of death was blunt-force trauma.1 He likely been working as an escort and was wearing women's clothing at the time of his death. He was between 17 and 23 years of age, 5' 6" in height, and missing four teeth. He had been dead for between 5 and 10 years. He had some kind of musculoskeletal disorder which would have affected his gait.2
  • DNA analysis identified Baby Doe to be the child of "Jane Doe No. 3 / Peaches."3
April 5, 2011
  • Police say Shannan Gilbert (24), the woman last seen in Oak Beach on May 1, 2010 is not one of the three bodies discovered on April 4.
April 11, 2011
  • Police uncover two more sets of remains in two separate locations.
  • The first discovery: female bones and jewelry found near the Jones Beach water tower. Described as "Jane Doe No. 3". DNA testing determines this is the same victim as Peaches and that she is the mother of the child (Baby Doe) found the week prior along Ocean Parkway.
  • The second: a skull discovered west of Tobay Beach in Nassau County is later determined to be that of the Jane Doe No. 7 torso found in 1996 on Fire Island.1, 2
May 9, 2011
  • In light of the six latest discoveries, Spota revises his theory of the case, announcing “There is no evidence that all of these remains are the work of a single killer.”
May 17, 2011
  • The New York Post reported that Long Island police were revisiting other similar unsolved murders of prostitutes. Named in the article was Tanya Rush (39), a mother of three from Brooklyn whose dismembered body was found on June 27, 2008.
November 29, 2011
  • Commissioner Dormer revises the case theory yet again, announcing he believes a single serial killer is to blame for all ten victims, and that Shannan’s disappearance is a separate case, perhaps not even a murder.
December 13, 2011
  • Shannan Gilbert’s remains are found on the far side of the Oak Beach marsh, a quarter mile from where her belongings were found five days earlier. Before an autopsy is performed, Commissioner Dormer refers to her death as an accident.
December 14, 2011*
  • James Bisset (48), a wealthy Long Island businessman, killed himself in his car in a parking lot.1
  • Bissett co-owned the Long Island Aquarium in Riverhead and the nearby Hyatt Hotel. He also owned Bissett Nursery in Holtsville, a large wholesale company, with his family and Treasure Cove Resort Marina in Riverhead.
December 15, 2011
  • District Attorney Spota decries Commissioner Dormer’s single-killer theory. The same day, County Executive—elect Steve Bellone names Dormer’s replacement as police commissioner, effective January 1.
January 3, 2012
  • Suffolk County Interim Commissioner Edward Webber announces “There’s no fixed theories at the moment” about the Gilbert case or any of the Ocean Parkway cases.
February 17, 2012*
  • Skeletal remains were discovered in a wooded area off North Street, west of Wading River Road. The body was wrapped in bed sheets, a plastic bag, and duct tape. Police determined the victim was a male and estimate the body had been there at least five years.1, 2
March 21, 2012*
  • A female body was discovered in a heavily wooded area of Manorville Hills County Park about 100 yards off the nearest dirt road. The body had been in a wooded area for "at least a week." Police stated the case was being treated as a homicide, but declined to describe any obvious wounds found on the body.1, 2
May 1, 2012
  • Shannan’s autopsy results are shared with her family. The cause of death is “undetermined.”1
November 15, 2012
  • A lawsuit was filed by her mother, Mari Gilbert, against the Suffolk County Police Department in the hopes of getting more answers about what happened to her daughter the night she went missing.1
December 12, 2012*
  • Christopher Loeb stole a bag from Suffolk Chief of Police James Burke’s SUV. While Loeb was in police custody he was threatened and assaulted by Burke, who allegedly coerced police who witnessed the incident to lie to federal investigators about what they saw. The bag contained Burke’s gun belt, ammunition, sex toys, pornography, and other items.1 According to Loeb the pornography was snuff films depicting a woman being tortured.2
  • James Burke pleaded guilty in February 2016 to conspiracy to commit obstruction of justice and violating the victim’s civil rights. In November 2016 he was sentenced to 46 months.3, 4
  • On January 31, 2017, Suffolk County agreed to pay $1.5 million to settle the federal lawsuit brought by Christopher Loeb.5
January 23, 2013*
  • The remains of a woman were discovered intentionally buried in a small piece of brush in a sandy area along the shore at the end of Sheep Lane in Lattingtown, near Oyster Bay. The remains are believed to be of a woman between the ages of 20 and 30, possibly Asian. She was wearing a 22-karat gold pig pendant, which may be a reference in some Asian cultures to "The Year of the Pig." There was trauma caused to her bones. Investigators believe she was buried before Hurricane Sandy in late 2012.
  • Asian Jane Doe:
March 16, 2013*
  • Natasha Jugo (31) was last seen leaving her home near Alley Pond Park, Queens. Her car was found along Ocean Parkway and some of her clothes and belongings were found in the sand near Gilgo Beach the following day. Jugo was described as 5-feet, 7-inches tall, 120 pounds with brown eyes and blonde hair. She was last seen wearing a black robe, pink pajamas, gray hooded sweatshirt, black coat, and black boots. Jugo's family said that she had "a history of problems in which she thought people were following her". Police are unsure whether the case is connected to the LISK victims."1, 2
June 24, 2013*
  • Natasha Jugo's body was discovered washed up on Gilgo Beach.1
September 2014
  • Due to the controversy about Shannan Gilbert's death, forensic pathologist Dr. Michael Baden agreed to conduct an independent autopsy of her remains in hopes of determining a clear cause of death.1
  • Upon examination of Gilbert's remains, Baden found damage to her hyoid bone, suggesting that strangulation may have occurred. Baden also noted that her body was found face-up, which is not common for drowning victims. Despite this, her death is still officially listed by police as an accident.2
December 10, 2015
  • Suffolk County Police Commissioner Tim Sini announced that the FBI had officially joined the investigation. The day before, former Police Commissioner James Burke, who resigned in October, had been indicted for alleged police brutality and other issues. He was said to have blocked FBI involvement in the LISK cases for years.1
  • A spokesperson for the FBI confirmed their official involvement. The FBI had previously assisted in the search for victims, but was never officially part of the investigation.2
July 23, 2016
  • Shannan Gilbert’s mother, Mari Gilbert, was murdered in her home in Ellenville, New York. Later that day, her younger daughter, Sarra Elizabeth Gilbert, was arrested and charged with the stabbing death of her mother.1
December 15, 2016
  • An escort comes forward and claims that James Burke, the disgraced ex-Suffolk police chief, is linked to prostitution on Oak Beach. She gave a press conference with John Ray, the attorney for the family of Shannan Gilbert.
    • See the video here.
September 12, 2017*
  • Suffolk County prosecutor Robert Biancavilla announced that John Bittrolff, a carpenter from Manorville, Long Island, was a suspect in at least one of the LISK murders. Bittrolff was convicted in May 2017 and sentenced in September in the homicides of two escorts in 1993 and 1994. He had been linked to the 1990s murders by DNA. He is suspected in a third murder.1, 2
  • The grown daughter of Rita Tangredi, one of Bittrolff's known victims, was reported to be "best friends" with Melissa Barthelemy, one of the Gilgo Beach victims. Barthelemy's mother said that her daughter "had a lot of calls to Manorville from her phone" before her death.3, 4
January 2019
  • State Senator Phil Boyle Boyle introduced a bill in the State Senate to encourage the Commission on Forensic Science to explore use of genetic genealogy. The commission discussed the issue and that of DNA phenotyping at its June 7 meeting.1
November 15, 2019*
  • A 54-year-old Long Island man, Andrey Frey, was arrested for allegedly trying to kidnap two sex workers on separate occasions and then traffic them for his own financial gain. He was charged with multiple counts of attempted sex trafficking and attempted kidnapping.
  • In both cases, one in July 2019, the other in October 2018, the women escaped by jumping out of his moving vehicle. Handcuffs, knives, guns, rope, zip-ties and manuals on knot-tying were recovered in a search of his home and vehicle. He also has a history of violence against sex workers.1, 2, 3
  • Federal investigators were examining whether Mr. Frey had any connection to the Gilgo Beach murders.
    • Relevant reddit thread: 1
January 16, 2020
  • Suffolk County Police Commissioner Geraldine Hart released images of a belt found at the crime scene with the letters "HM" or "WH" (depending on which way the belt was looked at) embossed in the black leather. The belt was found during the initial investigation near Ocean Parkway in Gilgo Beach. Police believe the belt was handled by the perpetrator and did not belong to any of the victims.
  • Hart stated that forensic genealogy was being used to help identify other victims, but would not comment on other DNA or forensic questions.
  • A website was announced, GilgoNews.com, enabling the police to share news and receive tips regarding the investigation.
    • Watch the press conference here.
  • Attorney John Ray, who represents the family of Shannon Gilbert, also gave a press conference urging LE to release her 911 call.
    • Watch the video here.
May 6, 2020
  • A judge overturned the appeal of the Suffolk County Police Department and ordered them to release the long-sealed 911 recording of a call made by Shannan Gilbert the night she died.1
  • Shannan Gilbert estate attorney John Ray says he has heard the 911 tapes and calls them 'extremely valuable'.2
May 22, 2020
  • The Suffolk County Police Department said in a statement they had positively identified the “Manorville Jane Doe,” also referred to as “Jane Doe #6," whose remains were located in Manorville in 2000 and Gilgo Beach in 2011. They have not yet released her identity.1
More links:
submitted by SACRED-GEOMETRY to UnresolvedMysteries [link] [comments]


2020.04.26 18:05 Esoterodactyl-88 Graham Hancock Book Thread

Ever few weeks I see another post about book recommendations. While discussing the books and sharing your thoughts on your favorite Hancock book is great, here I'm adding all Graham's books starting with Sign and the Seal on with a few words from his website. The title of each book is a hyperlink to Graham's own website where you will find links to various vendors should you wish to purchase a copy. Most, if not all, titles have a chapter or more that can be read to sample the book.
At some point I'll add major subjects discussed in each book and maybe major passages, too.
I've left out his novels, for now.
The Sign And The Seal (1992) by Graham Hancock
A journalist and travel writer in the employ of the Ethiopian government in the early 1980’s hears mention that the great lost treasure of the Jewish race – the ark of the covenant in which Moses placed the ten commandments – is reputed to be held in a church somewhere in Ethiopia …
The same man later sees the Hollywood blockbuster ‘Raiders of the lost Ark’, and an idea begins to find shape in his mind which will take some years to come to fruition …
In 1989 at Chartres Cathedral, France, he is drawn to a small, seemingly insignificant carving which mysteriously hints that the tale he heard in Ethiopia may be true – that that may, in fact, be the last resting place of the Ark …
The man is Graham Hancock – and the story of his quest to discover the truth behind the legends is the breathtaking real life adventure of The Sign and The Seal. the book that launched Graham into the bestseller lists worldwide.
Following obscure clues found within ancient stories and Biblical tales, through the occult knowledge gleaned from the coded Grail epic of Wolfram Von Eschenbach, and the obscure and secretive workings of the enigmatic Knights Templar, Graham traces the Ark from its source in ancient Egypt, to Jerusalem, and from there to its final resting place in Africa.
This is a tale worthy of Indiana Jones himself! A real modern day quest set against the lost knowledge of the ancient world and the political intrigues of the contemporary one.
Here is the first inkling that the technology of ancient Egypt, that produced the Ark, was something mysterious and powerful – a legacy, perhaps of something older and forgotten – here is the seeds that would flower in Fingerprints of the Gods. Was Moses an initiate of the lost Egyptian wisdom – the lost wisdom of the survivors of a cataclysmic flood?
A deeply personal account of a quest for meaning, The Sign and the Seal is a must-read for any interested in the ancient world or in the genesis of Graham Hancock’s thinking.
Fingerprints of the Gods - Evidence of Earth's Lost Civilization (1995) by Graham Hancock
On 6th July 1960 Lt Colonel Harold Ohlmeyer, a United States Airforce Commander, sent a reply to a letter from one Professor Charles Hapgood who had requested his opinion on a feature found on a map of 1513 AD called the Piri Reis Map. Lt Colonel Ohlmeyer’s reply was a bombshell. The map, showing the coastline of the east coast of the Americas and the west coast of Africa, the Colonel remarked, also seemed to show the coastline of Queen Maud Land in Antarctica free of ice – a condition it had not been in for some 9000 years!
In fact, it is only in recent times that modern man has been able to map this coastline using sub-surface surveying techniques that can penetrate the ice sheet that lies on top of it.
Ohlmeyer had no idea how a map existing in the 16th century could have got hold of such knowledge.
This was one of the many mysteries that lead Graham to begin his epic journey into man’s past that is Fingerprints of the Gods – and it is a mystery whose solution is mindblowing.
Travelling first to South and Meso-America, Graham finds evidence of myths of a white-skinned ‘god’ named Quetzalcoatl or ‘Viracocha’ who came from a drowned land bringing knowledge of farming and culture after a great flood. Tied in with these myths Graham begins to crack an ancient code imprinted in these ancient tales that refer to the ‘great mill’ of the heavens.
It is an astronomical code that deals with the position of the stars over vast periods of time – a code that reveals the ancients knew far, far more than they are generally credited with. Traces of the same code appear in Egyptian myth, and it is to this desert land that Graham and Santha travel, finding there haunting parallels in architecture and ritual to the New World sites they have just left behind.
Moreover, the whole layout of the Giza plateau seems to point to a date many thousands of years earlier than the date of its supposed construction – a date revealed in the astronomical alignments of the Pyramids, the ‘mansions of a million years’, home of the god Osiris, the bringer of agriculture to the Egyptians, like Quetzalcoatl, after a flood.
Could the Piri Reis maps be evidence for a previously unknown complex maritime civilisation, capable of mapping the globe? A global culture, cataclysmically destroyed at the end of the ice age, remnants of which survived the devastation to pass on their knowledge to the shaken world?
Were the figures of Osiris and Quetzalcoatl survivors of this lost race – passing down not only advanced geographical knowledge, but a secret astronomical code veiled in myth that pointed to the devastation in the past, and warned of that which is to come?
From the mysterious sites of Tiahuanaco and Teotihuacan, to the enduring enigmatic Sphinx and pyramids of Egypt, the grandiose Nazca lines of Peru to the stark primal beauty of the Osireion at Abydos, this is a journey both around the globe and into the heart of the true prehistoric origins of man. Part adventure, part detective story, this book will force you to revaluate your beliefs of the past.
Keeper of Genesis [UK] / The Message of the Sphinx [US] (1997) by Graham Hancock, and Robert Bauval
“Is the Sphinx of prehistoric origin? Why was it built? In this provocative, rigorously argued report, revisionist Egyptologists Hancock (The Fingerprints of the Gods) and Bauval (The Orion Mystery) join forces to answer these questions and more as they examine the Sphinx and its relation to the other monuments of the Giza plateau. Working from the premise that the Giza complex encodes a message, they begin with recently discovered geological evidence indicating that the deep erosion patterns on the flanks of the Sphinx were caused by 1000 years of heavy rain. Such conditions last existed in Egypt at the end of the last ice age, about 10,000-9,000 B.C., meaning that the Sphinx may be more than 12,000 years old (not the generally accepted 4500 years).
“The authors go on to suggest, using computer simulations of the sky, that the pyramids, representing the three stars of Orion’s Belt, along with associated causeways and alignments, constitute a record in stone of the celestial array at the vernal equinox in 10,500 B.C. This moment, they contend, represents Zep Tepi, the “First Time,” often referred to in the hieroglyphic record. They show how the initiation rituals of the Egyptian pharaohs replicate on Earth the sun’s journey through the stars in this remote era, and they suggest that the “Hall of Records” of a lost civilization may be located by treating the Giza Plateau as a template of these same ancient skies. These daring, well-argued theories will raise the hackles of orthodox Egyptologists? But that doesn’t mean they’re wrong.”-Publisher’s Weekly
The Mars Mystery (1999) by Graham Hancock, Robert Bauval & John Grigsby
Johannes Kepler, the 17th century astronomer and mathematician, once exclaimed that ‘there are more comets in the sky than there are fishes in the sea’. In 1990, a NASA astronomer observed that ‘there are more professionals working in a single fast-food restaurant than there are professionals scanning the sky for asteroids.’
The search for earth-bound space debris has traditionally received only minimal funding and although improvements are planned they may be too little and too late. With inadequate technology and personnel, it is frighteningly unlikely that our lookouts will spot an earth-bound object in sufficient time for us to do anything about it. The developed world is in a complacent slumber, and neither fantastical Hollywood movies nor dry probability estimates can awaken it to the reality of impending disaster.
In The Mars Mystery, Hancock, Bauval and Grigsby try something very different – they develop a firmly historical perspective on a catastrophe we have yet to experience.
The story begins with Mars. The authors examine and approve the theory that our planetary neighbour once held a dense atmosphere and oceans of water but was extinguished with incredible violence by a barrage of rock many thousands of years ago. They also provide an up-to-date, comprehensive and refreshingly balanced review of the photographic evidence regarding the past existence of a Martian civilisation. Equally absorbing is the investigation into NASA’s handling of the controversy surrounding the photographs, which included the issuing of false statements. The authors relate this to the history of disinformation policies pursued by American defence institutions.
The scope of the book then broadens to cover the impacts that have involved Earth, our Moon and the other scarred bodies in our solar system. The reader may be shocked to discover that our Moon is literally still vibrating from an impact that was observed by shocked Earthlings hundreds of years ago.
A particularly compelling chapter, incorporating evidence from a number of respected astronomers, concerns a swarm of comets, including a giant one up to 300 kilometres across, that entered an Earth-crossing orbit around 50,000 years ago. The giant comet subsequently fragmented, flooding the orbital path with millions of lethal asteroids and vastly increasing the chances of a collision with Earth. In fact, in all probability Earth has already been hit by one of these fragments in the last 20,000 years. Here the place of The Mars Mystery amongst Hancock’s other titles becomes clear. Could such an impact have been behind the dramatic and hitherto unexplained end of the last ice age? Could the survivors of that cataclysm have passed down, to all the great post-ice age civilisations, a warning of what is to come? There is an abundance of historical, archaeological and geological evidence, summarised in The Mars Mystery (and covered in more depth in Fingerprints of the Gods), to suggest the affirmative.
With effectiveness lent by its historical perspective, The Mars Mystery turns implausibility into intrigue and invites both dread and hope. Will it wake us up? At least it’s a start …
Heaven's Mirror: Quest for the Lost Civilization (1999) by Graham Hancock, Robert Bauval & John Grigsby
Awe inspiring and enigmatic, the sacred sites and holy places of ancient man have stood mute for millennia – their secrets seemingly vanished with the civilisations that built them. Yet what mysteries would they reveal if they could speak? Is there something that connects these sites – a hidden key that will once and for all disclose the riddles of our past? What is the startling archaic connection entwining the sacred places of our world?
Evading the interpretation of generations of historians and archaeologists the true cryptic nature and purpose of these sacred centres has lain in waiting – secreted in myth and legend and encoded in the very design of the sites themselves …
Until now.
In Heaven’s Mirror best-selling author Graham Hancock continues his quest begun in the No. 1 International best-sellers Fingerprints of the Gods and Keeper of Genesis to rediscover the hidden legacy of mankind – the revelation that the cultures we term ancient were, in fact, the heirs to a far, far older forgotten civilisation, and inheritors of its archaic wisdom …
In this breathtaking work of archaeological and mythical detection, we trace the ancient web of sacred sites around the globe on a spectacular voyage, from the temples of ancient Egypt to the enigmatic statues of Easter Island, from the haunting ruins of pre-Columbian America to the splendours of Cambodia’s ancient capital, Angkor – in order to crack the code of our ancient ancestors.
Accompanied by his wife Santha Faiia – whose sumptuous photographs illuminate the quest – and exquisitely portray the wonder and beauty of the ancient sites – Graham takes the reader on a remarkable odyssey – of sunken cities, and hidden chambers, of myth and magic – and astounding archaeological revelations – which builds to a staggering conclusion forcing us to reconsider our conception of the origins of man.
Hancock’s decipherment of the secret doctrine passed down by initiates from time immemorial unearths an age-old system obsessed with the motions of the heavenly bodies … whose aim is to achieve, through arcane rituals performed in temples whose layout mirror the stars and constellations of the night-sky, … immortality.
This is more than a sequel to Fingerprints of the Gods – it is a plunge into the spirituality of the ancients – a search for the revelation of a secret …
… a secret written in the language of astronomy, and recorded in the very foundations of the holy sites of ancient man …
… a secret which speaks of a mysterious connection between earth and heaven …
… a secret which turns temples into stars and men into gods …
Underworld: Flooded Kingdoms of the Ice Age (2002) by Graham Hancock
A physical and intellectual journey, a worldwide exploration diving for the underwater ruins of a lost civilization, this book follows clues in ancient scriptures and mythology and in the scientific evidence of the flood that swept the Earth at the end of the last Ice Age. This text explores the question of early humans swept away by the catastrophe. Who were these populations – pre-civilised hunter-gatherers or more sophisticated peoples altogether? The text is written as a personal adventure involving the reader in the travels, the practicalities and the risks while developing the larger themes along the way, building up to the explosive revelation of a global mystery.
Talisman (2004) / The Master Game (2011) by Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval
The Master Game is a roller-coaster intellectual journey through the back streets and rat runs of history to uncover the traces in architecture and monuments of a secret religion that has shaped the world.
Pivotal historical events and processes, not least the Renaissance, the birth of scientific rationalism, and the French and American revolutions, are radically re-evaluated in the light of new investigative evidence presented in The Master Game. Even the belief that the United States has a “global mission,” so obvious today, may ultimately prove to be less the result of a short-term reaction to terrorism than the inevitable working out of a covert plan originally set in motion almost two thousand years ago.
The Master Game refers to a scheme or “game” played on the world stage to bring about a world order governed by a lofty goal which, today, we term the “Masonic Ideal.” The Master Game traces the origins of this game of symbols and words and talismans from ancient Egypt all the way to modern times, and places it squarely on the elitist Scottish Rite Freemasonry, headquartered in Washington, DC, and ruled by a secretive and powerful brotherhood of men who have attained the thirty-third degree. The Master Game exposes this world order’s true purpose and, more importantly, shows how it has affected the United States of America and badly backfired on 9/11.
The book is adapted and expanded from the authors’ earlier, out-of-print book Talisman (2004).
Supernatural - Meetings with the Ancient Teachers of Mankind (2005) by Graham Hancock
Less than 50,000 years ago mankind had no art, no religion, no sophisticated symbolism, no innovative thinking. Then, in a dramatic and electrifying change, described by scientists as “the greatest riddle in human history”, all the skills and qualities that we value most highly in ourselves appeared already fully formed, as though bestowed on us by hidden powers. In Supernatural Graham Hancock sets out to investigate this mysterious “before-and-after moment” and to discover the truth about the influences that gave birth to the modern human mind. His quest takes him on a journey of adventure and detection from the stunningly beautiful painted caves of prehistoric France, Spain and Italy to remote rock shelters in the mountains of South Africa where he finds a treasure trove of extraordinary Stone Age art. He uncovers clues that lead him to travel to the depths of the Amazon rainforest to drink the powerful plant hallucinogen Ayahuasca with Indian shamans, whose paintings contain images of “supernatural beings” identical to the animal-human hybrids depicted in prehistoric caves and rock shelters. And hallucinogens such as mescaline, also produce visionary encounters with exactly the same beings. Scientists at the cutting edge of consciousness research have begun to consider the possibility that such hallucinations may be real perceptions of other “dimensions”. Could the “supernaturals” first depicted in the painted caves and rock shelters be the ancient teachers of mankind? Could it be that human evolution is not just the “blind”, “meaningless” process that Darwin identified, but something else, more purposive and intelligent, that we have barely even begun to understand?
The Divine Spark (2015) edited by Graham Hancock
I suspect the real breakthroughs in our understanding of consciousness are going to come from an entirely different direction. That direction, controversially, has to do with psychedelics – which, as many of the contributors to The Divine Spark argue, offer spectacular potential for the investigation of the “hard problem” of consciousness.’ – Graham Hancock, from the Introduction.
In The Divine Spark, bestselling author Graham Hancock brings us a groundbreaking collection of the latest thinking on consciousness and psychedelics. Graham has been writing and speaking about this to audiences worldwide, including a controversial TedX talk on ayahuasca and DMT, which received over well over a million views on YouTube.
Combining the wisdom of leading minds, The Divine Spark illuminates the topic like never before, with a particular focus on the use of psychedelics to open up the realm of the supernatural. The book unveils fresh theories on the relation of psychedelics to domains such as creativity, the survival of life on planet earth, interspecies communication, medicine and drug research, and many more.
Contributors include: Mike Alvernia, Russell Brand, David Jay Brown, Paul Devereux, Rick Doblin, Alex Grey, Nassim Haramein, Martina Hoffmann, Don Lattin, Eduardo Luna, Dennis McKenna, Thad McKraken, Rak Razam, Gabriel Roberts, Thomas B. Roberts, Robert Schoch, Mark Seelig, Rick Strassman and Robert Tindall.
Magicians of the Gods (2015) by Graham Hancock
Graham Hancock’s multi-million bestseller Fingerprints of the Gods remains an astonishing, deeply controversial, wide-ranging investigation of the mysteries of our past and the evidence for Earth’s lost civilization. Twenty years on, Hancock returns with Magicians of the Gods, the sequel to his seminal work. Published on 10 September 2015 in the UK and on 10 November 2015 in the US, Magicians of the Gods is not in any sense an ‘update’ of Fingerprints but is a completely new book filled from front to back with completely new evidence, completely new travels to the world’s most mysterious archaeological sites, and completely new insights, based on the latest scientific evidence, into the global cataclysm that wiped an advanced civilization from the earth and made us a species with amnesia, forced to begin again like children with no memory of what went before.
Near the end of the last Ice Age 12,800 years ago, a giant comet that had entered the solar system from deep space thousands of years earlier, broke into multiple fragments. Some of these struck the Earth causing a global cataclysm on a scale unseen since the extinction of the dinosaurs. At least eight of the fragments hit the North American ice cap, while further fragments hit the northern European ice cap.
The impacts, from comet fragments a mile wide approaching at more than 60,000 miles an hour, generated huge amounts of heat which instantly liquidized millions of square kilometers of ice, destabilizing the Earth’s crust and causing the global Deluge that is remembered in myths all around the world.
A second series of impacts, equally devastating, causing further cataclysmic flooding, occurred 11,600 years ago, the exact date that Plato gives for the destruction and submergence of Atlantis.
The evidence revealed in this book shows beyond reasonable doubt that an advanced civilization that flourished during the Ice Age was destroyed in the global cataclysms between 12,800 and 11,600 years ago.
But there were survivors – known to later cultures by names such as ‘the Sages’, ‘the Magicians’, ‘the Shining Ones’, and ‘the Mystery Teachers of Heaven’. They travelled the world in their great ships doing all in their power to keep the spark of civilization burning. They settled at key locations – Gobekli Tepe in Turkey, Baalbek in the Lebanon, Giza in Egypt, ancient Sumer, Mexico, Peru and across the Pacific where a huge pyramid has recently been discovered in Indonesia. Everywhere they went these ‘Magicians of the Gods’ brought with them the memory of a time when mankind had fallen out of harmony with the universe and paid a heavy price.
A memory and a warning to the future… For the comet that wrought such destruction between 12,800 and 11,600 years may not be done with us yet. Astronomers believe that a 20-mile wide ‘dark’ fragment of the original giant comet remains hidden within its debris stream and threatens the Earth. An astronomical message encoded at Gobekli Tepe, and in the Sphinx and the pyramids of Egypt, warns that the ‘Great Return’ will occur in our time…
America Before: The Key to Earth’s Lost Civilization (2019) by Graham Hancock
Was an advanced civilization lost to history in the global cataclysm that ended the last Ice Age? Graham Hancock, the internationally bestselling author, has made it his life’s work to find out — and in America Before he draws on the latest archaeological and DNA evidence to bring his quest to a stunning conclusion.
Hancock’s research takes us on a series of journeys and encounters with the scientific rebels responsible for the recent extraordinary breakthroughs. In the process, from the Mississippi Valley to the Amazon rainforest, he reveals that ancient ‘New World’ cultures share a legacy of advanced scientific knowledge and sophisticated spiritual beliefs with supposedly unconnected ‘Old World’ cultures.
Have archaeologists focussed for too long only on the ‘Old World’ in their search for the origins of civilization while failing to consider the revolutionary possibility that those origins might in fact be found in the ‘New World’?
America Before: The Key to Earth’s Lost Civilisation is the culmination of everything that millions of readers have loved in Hancock’s body of work over the past decades, namely a mind-dilating exploration of the mysteries of the past, amazing archaeological discoveries and profound implications for how we lead our lives today.
A few of the revelations from the book:
We were taught in school that the Americas were the last of the great landmasses of the Earth to be inhabited by humans – who were thought to have arrived exclusively on foot from northeast Asia around 13,000 years ago by crossing the Bering Straits which formed a land-bridge to Alaska during the lowered sea-levels of the Ice Age. By contrast, anatomically modern humans, originating in Africa, are believed to have reached Europe, Asia, and even Australia, as far back as 60,000 years ago.Since the recent publication in Nature of landmark research in southern California scientists have begun to realise that something of immense importance is missing from this long-established picture. Though the general public have not been kept well informed, it now appears that the Americas were first peopled at least 130,000 years ago – many tens of thousands of years before human settlements became established elsewhere. Yet because of the dominance of the former – and now entirely discredited – theory of the late peopling of the Americas, and of mental blocks associated with that theory, archaeologists continue to focus only on the ‘Old World’ in their search for the origins of civilization and have not considered the revolutionary possibility that those origins might in fact be found in the ‘New World’.
Certain tribes of the Amazon rainforest are closely related to Australian Aborigines and to Melanesians from Papua New Guinea. This extraordinary, unexpected and extremely ancient DNA signal is only present in South America and is completely absent in North America and Mesoamerica. It bears witness to something that archaeologists hitherto believed to be impossible – that the technology and skills needed to cross the Pacific Ocean, and successfully resettle a reproductively-viable population, existed more than 13,000 years ago.Such secrets of human prehistory, now revealed by cutting-edge science, call for a complete rethink of our understanding of our own remote past and hint at the existence of a lost civilization of the Ice Age.
Astonishing similarities exist between the spiritual beliefs of the ancient Egyptians, as manifested in their Books of the Dead, and the spiritual beliefs of the mound-builder cultures of the Mississippi Valley – as manifested, for example, at Moundville in Alabama, Cahokia in Illinois and Watson Brake in Louisiana. Hitherto written off as ‘coincidental’ by archaeologists, the new investigation presented in America Before confirms that the parallels are very real. The deep and explicit details, imagery and beliefs, shared by these two supposedly unconnected religious systems can no longer be dismissed as coincidence. Nor are they the result of direct ‘diffusion’ of culture from ancient Egypt to ancient North America, or vice versa. Challenging our entire understanding of prehistory, what the evidence points to instead is a shared legacy of sophisticated ideas concerning the mystery of life and death inherited more than 13,000 years ago, in both the ‘Old’ World and the ‘New’, from an advanced predecessor civilization as yet unidentified by archaeologists.
South America’s Amazon rainforest has long been regarded as pristine jungle, unpeopled until less than a thousand years ago and thereafter inhabited only by ‘primitive’ tribes of hunter gatherers.America Before, comprehensively refutes this picture with a thorough investigation of the latest scientific evidence.Far from an untouched wilderness, the book reveals the Amazon to be a vast ‘garden’, very precisely shaped and moulded by humans for more than 13,000 years. It’s early inhabitants possessed advanced scientific knowledge concerning the molecular properties of plants – evident in concoctions such as the visionary brew ayahuasca and the nerve poison curare. Those first peoples of the Amazon were also the creators of a ‘miracle earth’ – terra preta –still capable of rejuvenating much younger infertile soils when it is added to them today.Thanks to scanning technologies such as LIDAR, and because of the tragic ongoing clearances of old-growth rainforest to make way for cattle ranches, we now know that great cities once existed in the Amazon, their populations supported by the immense agricultural productivity of terra preta.We know, too, that in ancient times there were people here who possessed and deployed sophisticated geometrical and astronomical skills to create immense earthworks, many with footprints larger than that of the Great Pyramid of Egypt.America Before reveals the true extent and significance of these vast, newly-discovered Amazonian ‘geoglyphs’, their stunning resemblance to the equally grand and mysterious earthworks of Ohio, such as Serpent Mound, and the Newark and High Bank works, and connections to other geometrical and astronomical monuments as far afield as Stonehenge in England and Angkor in Cambodia.Again, what the evidence points to is a shared legacy of knowledge inherited from a much earlier civilization that has been lost to history.
For some decades it has been generally accepted that a global cataclysm occurred around 12,800 years ago at the onset of a mysterious period of earth changes and climate instability known to geologists as the Younger Dryas. Since 2007 a group of more than 60 scientists, publishing in leading peer-reviewed journals, have presented evidence linking the cataclysm to a disintegrating comet that crossed the orbit of the earth 12,800 years ago and bombarded our planet with a ‘swarm’ of fragments, some more than a kilometre in diameter.Though compelling, with new corroborative studies published every year, the comet hypothesis remains controversial and a number scientists favour other explanations. What all are agreed on, however, is that a global cataclysm did indeed occur.America Before reveals that the epicentre of the cataclysm lay in North America, then still in the grip of the Ice Age with much of the northern half of the continent covered in ice a mile deep. An immense flood was unleashed as large sectors of the ice cap suddenly melted. From the Channelled Scablands of the state of Washington, via the gigantic pot-holes lining the Saint Croix River in Minnesota, to the Finger Lakes of upstate New York, a huge swathe of North America was swept clean by this deluge. At the same time global sea-level rose, the Gulf Stream was stopped in its tracks and the world was plunged into a deep-freeze that lasted 1,200 years.It was the end of the former age of the earth, the Pleistocene, and the beginning of our own epoch, the Holocene. In the transition, America Before reveals that an advanced civilization, hitherto the stuff of myth and legend, was lost to history.

submitted by Esoterodactyl-88 to GrahamHancock [link] [comments]


2020.04.11 01:29 layoutmaker8 Things I Dislike Most about the Mormon Church

Sorry, I'm wanting to leave the Mormon church and I just need to vent. I live in a predominately Mormon area and I don't have one friend out here that's not Mormon. I don't even have an inactive friend so I have no one I can share this stuff with. Feel free to add your thoughts and what you dislike.
  1. The obsession with marriage. I was brand new to the church, just dated a guy for a few weeks and my Bishop asked me when I'd get married. All of my friends are getting married left and right and most are very young. I've always believed some people really are happier single and we shouldn't all rush into marriage.
  2. The shelteredness. I had to explain sex to my 27 year old boyfriend. I hear people say the dumbest things out here. We had a cringey relief society lesson about sex and masturbation where my relief society president told a story of girl who used to be in our ward that struggled with masturabation AND USED HER FIRST AND LAST NAME. (the girl alledgedly gave permission....) but for real, I do what I do in my alone time, you do what you do. I don't need to know and the bishop don't need to know.
  3. Everyone that acts like BYU is the best school. I was discouraged from applying cause "its really hard to get into?" Really?? Some of the dumbest people I know go to BYU.
  4. The secrecy. Everyone says they cant talk about the temple because its sacred. No, its really they're scared too. Why should we have to make covenants when we don't even know what we're getting into? Most of my friends that have gone through the temple said they felt like it was a cult the first time "but now that they go all the time they understand the meaning of it." I knew a lot about the temple before I went through. I have bad anxiety though and I directly asked my escort before I went through if there was anything that'd make me anxious in the temple. She blew off the question. Sure enough, there was part of the video that made me anxious... I stopped her and informed her she said "yeah, I thought that'd bother you." Then why didn't you tell me???? I feel lied to. (Not completely dissing the temple because I did enjoy it a lot of times, I just don't believe it. However, regardless if its true or not true I hate the secrecy).
  5. People care more about dead people than alive ones. My friend from out of town was going to visit me. She said first she had to go to the temple though. By the time she got out she had to be somewhere else and couldn't even see me. Why not focus on spending time with those you love?
  6. The view they have on pastors of other churches. I've heard people say so many things "Pastors are in it for the money... why do they get paid, they only work one day a week." First of all, your prophet and apostles get paid too so lets start at that. Second of all, most pastors I know are not in it for the money. They work more than one day a week. They are on call at all hours visiting the sick, going to hospitals, conducting funerals and weddings. They are some of the most stressed people I know. One pastor I knew lived in an RV outside the church cause that's all he could afford.
  7. Their view on the protestant reformation. I've heard time and time again from missionaries... "so there was the great apostasy and finally all these churches started forming. people would pick up the pieces that they liked and start a church." Maybe theres some truth to that but these men during the protestant reformation were literally dying for what they believed. They went through a lot. I believe many of them were sincere and really trying to find what was true
  8. The king follet discourse. Though not officially church doctrine there are tons that believe that our God was a man on another planet and that gods have existed for all eternity. I used to live in a non Mormon area and the missionaries would downplay this... oh that's not church doctrine or not what we believe blah blah blah. Now that I live in an all Mormon area I hear these things talked about openly more and more. Again, I felt slightly tricked/ lied to
  9. People talking about what they want their planet to be like. Literally have friends that do this... focus on now, focus on helping others, focus on loving Christ and being like Him
  10. The idea that we can become gods. One I don't agree with and two, when I get to heaven I want to retire. Having millions of spirit children who will disobey me and probably hate me doesn't seem like Heaven to me
  11. Tithing. Though other churches practice this, I've never been asked by another church if I tithe or not. I was in a bad financial spot when I joined the church. The cost of living is high in general. I usually barely had money to make it or didn't always. The church would tell me to tithe and that if I needed help to talk to them. I always felt so embarrassed and even felt judged by the bishops at times. (some were very gracious though). Why should a poor person give to a multi billion dollar corporation that I don't even believe in or know where my money goes?
  12. Everyone repeating the same things like robots "I know the church is true. I know that Joseph Smith was a Prophet. I know that the Book of Mormon is true..."
  13. Praise to the man. I HATE this song. Why should we praise Joseph Smith??/ I only praise God and my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. I wouldn't sing praised to Moses, or Peter, or Adam and Eve... why Joseph???
  14. The push to get you baptized as soon as possible. Okay so I believed one thing all my life and now in the first lesson with you I need to commit to baptism??? I don't think so
  15. You can't get rid of missionaries! You meet with them once, they'll always knock. You ask to not be contacted? A few brave missionaries still will... its like "Go away!!!!"
  16. The amount of extra work you're given. Life is hard enough without all these required callings. The people with the biggest callings are the most stressed out people I know.
  17. The dumb justifications I hear when I ask about the troubling history/ rascism "oh, blacks just weren't ready for the priesthood yet. brigham young wasn't rascist, yeah that one prophet said something that is considered heretical today, but he was just speaking from his own conscious." How bout the prophets don't know what they're talking about any more than we do?
  18. Fellowshipping but no genuine friendships. I was pretty popular when I joined the church. I do have some genuine friendships, but most people I feel are assigned to me. They're always there for me, visit, and act like they love me. Yet, I never get invited to personal things with them and their friends. If I do its because I'm starting to go inactive. This isn't one hundred percent of the time, but it is mostly
  19. Visiting teaching. I was going through the worst time of my life. My visiting teachers just showed up and dropped off cookies so they could check it off their list. If they would've talked to me for 5 minutes they would've known that my world was crumbling.
  20. The obsession with families. I don't want to be with my family forever. They were abusive. It sounds like hell to me
  21. Every time the Bible contradicts one of their beliefs they just say "Oh, well the bibles been changed a lot so we cant really trust it."
  22. Everyone afraid to research for themselves. Everything is considered anti-Mormon. Actually "anti Mormon"has a lot of truth and I'm amazed by the lack of knowledge everyone has on their own religion
  23. My boyfriend tearing up about me wanting to leave the church saying that He's afraid I'll go to the telestial kingdom when he doesn't even like the church
  24. People talking about the sins they wish they could commit if they weren't Mormon
  25. People being looked down upon for eating out on Sundays. I hear people talking/ joking about it
  26. The person that corrected me and told me I prayed wrong because I address God as "You" instead of Thee/ Thou
  27. Missionaries asking me if I've ever prayed before when I clearly just told them I grew up in Christian churches all my life. You really think your church is the only church that prays?
  28. Every time I ask a question I literally hear the same "memorized" answers from everyone. Its like a broken record
  29. The fact that they use leaven bread during sacrament.. .you realize leaven represents sin, right?
  30. The fact that they make such a big deal saying we shouldn't wear crosses when theres an upside down pentagram and tons of masonic symbols on the salt lake temple
  31. The fact that youre supposed to get married in the temple and my family cant come
  32. When I got my patriarchal blessing I wasn't allowed to have anyone in the room with me cause they weren't family... k well I guess Ill just get used to doing everything alone...
  33. People talking about if other people are wearing their garments or not
  34. People correcting me for using the word mormon
  35. People only there to help with minor problems but when something big happens most leave
  36. Missionaries acting like they're your friends but when you stop investigating they act rude to you. This happened to me, maybe not all cases. Theres a lot of great missionaries. Again, I felt betrayed
  37. Getting invited over to dinners every night but once you're in the church for a while everything stops
  38. Everyone staring at you like you're an outsider every time you speak in sunday school because your ideas are "so different" because your one of five that didn't grow up in the church
I could keep going, but I fear no one will read anyway cause its too long... Maybe I'll make an additional post to continue venting...
submitted by layoutmaker8 to exmormon [link] [comments]


2020.03.30 04:01 Hoping_n_Praying I Don't Want To Be Wrong

I should probably note this isn't a new problem for me, but now I am putting this fear on a much larger scale and I am absolutely 100% mortified. Also I am SO SORRY ABOUT HOW LONG THIS IS!!! But I'm hoping that maybe I'm covering topics that many others have thought about. Also I will appreciate any and all recommendations or comments. If you all tell me I'm crazy and need to take a breath, heck I'll take two. Just be nice about it please.

INTRODUCTION
For context I am 24 years old and male, I live in the South (NC to be exact, right in that Bible Belt) and grew up going to church, I started off in an Advent Church but I don't really have much memory from that. My parents later decided we were going to attend a different church (I was really young then and didn't really have any capacity to agree or disagree with that decision) and wound up joining a Wesleyan Church which my Mom still attends, my Dad has instead split off and attends a Seventh Day Adventist Church (they are still married although how happily is very much up to debate). Growing up I never really thought about religion that much, I thought about God a fair bit but nothing really super intuitive I don't think. Just basic things like "can I play GameCube in Heaven" or other such childlike stuff. I got saved sometime in my preteen years and was baptized around the same time. It wasn't until I started getting older that I really started having fear and worry over the idea of hell and the possibility that I could be going there or someone else that I loved. This terrified me and my best friend at the time, who was also the pastor's son, and we talked a lot about how terrified we both were at the possibility and I think the end result wound up being kind of the same, we both kind of burned out. We both just didn't think about God or Heaven or Hell that much anymore and just focused on other things like video games and cartoons and the like. It has pretty much stayed that way for at least myself for awhile. I never really "lost faith" so much to say as I never really stopped believing in Jesus and God or anything like that, but I certainly wasn't focused on the idea of eternal damnation like I used to.
Like I said though, that was until recently. I sincerely do not know how to explain it but something happened to me in about mid January and it was like I was hit by a bus. I felt a lot of pain in my heart and my stomach, like actual physical pain (but I'm also not convinced it wasn't spiritual either). I was having an intense sense of paranoia and feeling like everything was wrong in my life and that I was doomed somehow. I was worried that maybe this was God or the Holy Spirit trying to speak to me, tell me something was wrong, that I needed to make a change but I wasn't exactly sure what. I had also started taking allergy shots at the time and thought that maybe this new medication was just cranking up my paranoia somehow but everything I looked up seemed to suggest that wasn't a side effect. So naturally, I then got very worried, ain't it wonderful how that happens?!
So since then I've started asking myself all sorts of questions about what I believe, what I grew up believing, what I want to believe, I guess in some ways...I may just be rambling, so I ask that you use some of the Christ like patience we are supposed to have as I completely try to put into words the theological rabbit hole that I've thrown myself down into.

CALVINISM VS ARMINIANISM VS ONCE SAVED, ALWAYS SAVED
Up until about maybe...a week ago, I had no idea what these terms were or anything of the sort (except OSAS but we'll get back to that one). Now before I get into this I do want to preface that this is just my current understanding of these theological theories, so if I am completely and utterly incorrect or misguided then please feel free to correct them. I am also aware that even if one does agree with most of one of these ideas they may not agree with all of them, all good? All good.
Or are we?! Well if we are one of the lucky few appointed by God through Calvinism then yeah sure! But if Arminianism? Oh no buddy, you may be able to have salvation but guess what? It can be lost! Again, at least at my current understanding. I have seen many people use TULIP to explain the concepts of both.
CALVINISM:
T- Total depravity (Human beings are completely depraved by sin and there is no repentance without God's involvement)
U- Unconditional election (God chooses his people, you don't get a choice)
L- Limited atonement (God didn't have Jesus dies for the sins of everyone, just his elect)
I- Irresistible grace (Grace is given freely and cannot be earned or denied)
P- Perseverance of the Saints (Those who God chooses cannot lose their salvation, their sainthood with persevere)
ARMINIANISM:
T- Free will but still depraved (Human beings can make God pleasing decisions but are still inherently sinful)
U- Conditional election (God knows before hand who will and who will not respond to his message and use their free will to choose Christ)
L- Unlimited atonement (Christ died for the sins of everyone ever but you have to be willing to accept his gift)
I- Resistible grace (Gaining salvation can be resisted because God will not affect their freewill)
P- Fall from grace (Salvation can be lost after being gained by a variety of ways such as abandoning the faith)
Now for the longest time I belonged in the Arminianism camp and honestly, it terrifies me! Now there are aspects of Arminianism that I like and enjoy, for instance the fact that salvation is openly available to every human being on the planet and not just an "elect" few. But what scares me about Arminianism is the idea that salvation can be lost because no one really seems to get how, at least for sure.
This is when you get into the different aspects of salvation such as:
LEGALISM: Salvation must be maintained after being given by following the laws that God has declared and laid out. Failure to do so, at least to a certain degree, can result in your salvation being revoked. Some may say that even committing one sin after being saved corrupts salvation, some say it must be a willful or intentional sin, some say it must be a continuous pattern of sin that is never challenged or repented of. Either way, continuing to fail to follow the law will end salvation.
LORDSHIP: Salvation is not available for anyone who is not willing to completely and utterly submit to Christ's will is unsaved. This feels somewhat similar to legalism, however perhaps to the umpteenth degree. Lordship is basically saying that in order to be saved we must be disciples of Christ and simply cannot believe in him for salvation.
However, during this whole experience I came upon the belief of OSAS or Once Saved, Always Saved. The idea that as soon as you accept Jesus as your savior and ask to be forgiven of your sins you are set, and that this gift is available to everyone. Since God forgives you of all your sins, that would include the ones you committed in the past as well as the future. So once you are saved, you are always be saved. I mean...that sounds amazing! I have heard that some see that as "easy belief-ism" and that many are simply followers of this belief because they get a license to sin. Well...I get that, but the way I've heard it explained is that while you have the freedom to commit sin after being saved you will have to deal with the consequences for those sins. God with chastise you as his child and if you continue in this sin he may take you from this world sooner than you had planned, and you will still get to Heaven but that doesn't mean God may or may not give you a good talking to before he lets you in. That kind of makes sense to, and I've also heard the verse about God placing a seal on his followers and not losing any of his children (although many have made the decision that that verse means one can willingly take themselves out of God's hand). However, again, I just don't know for sure, especially when there are so many warnings about following the laws and commands.
So...here's the thing, neither Calvinism or Arminianism make perfect sense to me but they both do have their aspects that I find not only appealing but scriptural. Calvinism does make sense to me in the fact that salvation itself is a gift from God and he can save whoever he wants because we're his creation so of course he would get his say. Alternatively...it feels kinda prideful to think that we are God's "elect", that God chose us and that we are just so lucky while ignoring the fact that everyone else that wasn't hand selected is doomed forever. Alternatively the Arminianism ideal that literally anyone can obtain salvation makes great sense, especially when God does desire for all to be saved, so it makes sense he would want all to have the opportunity. However the fact that there really is no confirmed interpretation on salvation obtaining and maintaining scares the daylights out of me. Especially since so many of these interpretations seem to cancel each other out.
Let me explain that last part, if you believe that simply believing in Christ and asking for forgiveness is all that is required of you then great! But do you have to hold on to that belief until you die? Then OSAS and Calvinists are wrong. What if you die with a sin you haven't repented of just yet, are you then doomed forever? Is it only if you willingly commited said sin? But is all sin not somewhat willful? Not to mention being a heretic if you preach a different belief in the Gospel. If the Gospel is if you accept Jesus as your personal savior and repent at least once in your life and you will be saved, everyone who teaches or preaches that you must cut out all sins to be saved is a heretic spreading a false message. If the Gospel is that we must believe, repent, and then sin no more and if you do repent ASAP, then OSAS is a heresy. So on and so on, all these different interpretations of the same text and belief in the same God and savior, all making each other heretics. Which now opens the can of worms of all these different denominations being heretical Christians, and good Lord above I do not want to get into all that.
TL;DR: Although I guess my big question is, if our salvation is so important to God and Jesus and the Holy Spirit, why does it seem so complicated to know whether or not for sure we actually are saved or not?

BIBLE TRANSLATIONS AND INTERPRETATION ACCURACY
So again, up until recently I never really thought about Bible versions and them being different. I guess I kinda always new that, since I knew there were different versions, but I always figured that they were pretty much the same. Some just sounded like the were in older English while others used more common terminology to make reading scripture easier to understand and digest. Apparently however there is so much more to it than that.
Y'all ever hear of Constantine?! I didn't really know much much except for that DC character but nope, not the same guy. Constantine was supposed to be the first Roman Emperor to become a Christian convert in the early 300 AD's and was supposed to be a great reason as to how Christianity became so wide spread in the Roman empire, aside from Paul of course no disrespect. However Constantine is also responsible for Christianity becoming a bit murky with paganistic practices and beliefs. Holidays like Christmas being on December 25th which we today associate with the birth of Christ (aside from many of us knowing this isn't when it happened) were originally meant to worship the sun god Sol Invictus. Similarly Easter was a holiday that celebrated Ishtar, a goddess of fertility, whose symbols of eggs and rabbits make a whole lot more sense now with that context. Now am I stating that we're all not Christians for celebrating these holidays? ...I don't know man, I'm not God. But there are verses that say God allows people to celebrate religious holidays as long as they understand that participating in those events do not save them (I believe so anyway, I don't want to make false Biblical claims so if I say something incorrect please correct me in a respectful manner). However with this knowledge established, let's talk about the Bible.
After Constantine's conversion, he commissioned that 50 Bibles be written and many claim that Constantine want these Bibles to be more palatable and so any Bible translations that derived from Constantine's manuscripts cannot be trusted in their entirety and some even claim they are heretical. There's apparently many different names for these original texts but one that I heard be claimed was not messed with by Constantine was what is refereed to as the Textus Receptus. This version is where many say that the King James version of the Bible is the one true version of the text and that all the other versions are watered down, faulty, or even heretical. I have heard arguments against this, claims that Constantine did not go around altering the text significantly and that any changes made were simply to aid in understanding. However we do not know this for sure so now I worry that when someone tells me to turn to the Bible for answers to my problems, I don't even know which one I should turn to!
Oh! Especially since apparently people weren't even given access to the bible for nearly 1,000 years! According to an article after the first establishment of the unified Catholic church in 325 C.E., the official policy of the church was that the common people were not allowed to own their own copies of the Bible and that later on they also forbid the translation of the Bible into people's native tongues. Some may think I am incorrect or lying but I really wish I wasn't, or that the source I'm citing is wrong, but here are the statements that they provide as proof of their claim:
Decree of the Council of Toulouse (1229 C.E.): “We prohibit also that the laity should be permitted to have the books of the Old or New Testament; but we most strictly forbid their having any translation of these books.”
Ruling of the Council of Tarragona of 1234 C.E.: “No one may possess the books of the Old and New Testaments in the Romance language, and if anyone possesses them he must turn them over to the local bishop within eight days after promulgation of this decree, so that they may be burned...”
Proclamations at the Ecumenical Council of Constance in 1415 C.E.: Oxford professor, and theologian John Wycliffe, was the first (1380 C.E.) to translate the New Testament into English to “...helpeth Christian men to study the Gospel in that tongue in which they know best Christ’s sentence.” For this “heresy” Wycliffe was posthumously condemned by Arundel, the archbishop of Canterbury. By the Council’s decree “Wycliffe’s bones were exhumed and publicly burned and the ashes were thrown into the Swift River.”
Fate of William Tyndale in 1536 C.E.: William Tyndale was burned at the stake for translating the Bible into English. According to Tyndale, the Church forbid owning or reading the Bible to control and restrict the teachings and to enhance their own power and importance.
Let me clarify, this is not me attempting to attack Catholicism in anyway shape or form, Protestants have their own murky past and pretty much any group in history if you go back enough has some skeletons in their closets, but this historical event cannot be ignored. Who knows how these texts were changed or altered in translation and if these changes were meant to make additions onto the Christian populace. This also opens up the whole thing of if these people were led astray and taught an incorrect Gospel would they be subject to damnation? I truly don't know and the thought of that terrifies me considering that many of us could be in the same boat.
Now I know that many believe that the Bible has been protected and preserved by God throughout the centuries but I think that many would also say that there are certain translations that they would say are incorrect and heretical. Many of the more conservative among you would look to the the Queen James Bible, but the thing is that that is still a Bible and yes while it may have aspects of it changed or edited to fit a belief system there is still parts of God's word in that translation. Similarly many have pointed out that China has changed the characters in the Bible to take place in China and that characters like the Virgin Mary were ancient Chinese. There have also been some foreign translations of the Bible that have omitted the story of Jesus stopping the stoning of the woman caught in adultery and changing many of the stronger female characters in the Bible to support the subjugation of women in their societies and cultures. If someone was to come to Christ through one of these faulty translations would they still be saved? Technically it's a heretical text because it's changing the story, but since the readers don't know that are they spared from their ignorance? I would hope so but the Bible also says that anyone who preaches a different Gospel or follows a different Gospel is o cursed and that it would have been better for them is they were never born, so now I'm even more scared out of my dag-gum mind!!!
TL;DR: To summarize, there's been enough events throughout history to make me question and wonder what version of the Bible I should read and if there even is a fully correct one. I also worry that perhaps if you preach from and lead others to Christ with the wrong Biblical message that maybe we're unknowing heretics. Anyone have some thoughts?

LGBT CHRISTIANS
Now I know what many of you are already thinking, "let's see...Southern Bible Belt Christian in a small conservative town...should I report now?" Take a deep breath, I am coming at this topic with as much respect and love as I can. First off, I am very much on the left, and I have never understood the overwhelming homophobia that is undeniably present in much of the Evangelical Christian circle. I have never had any problem with the LGBT community, and consistently questioned my own sexuality growing up. I was someone who grew up being bullied and as a nerdy theater kid who never dated in school I'm sure you can guess what kind of rumors and names I was called. If anything I felt like this strengthened my compassion for the LGBT community, if people would bully and pick on me mercilessly for something that I wasn't, what must that be like for an actual person with homosexual attractions. I also never thought God hated anyone who was gay, I just couldn't wrap my mind around the idea that God would create people he would hate.
However throughout this spell I've been going through I've started asking questions about whether or not my own personal opinions were overshadowing God's commandments and that I was on a wrong and dangerous path. Growing up a conservative Christian will do that to you...
I've heard arguments that our interpretations of these verses are not reflective of the homosexuality of today. That the crimes of Sodom and Gomorrah were actually rape and trying to fornicate with an angel. That many of the homosexual activities that were condemned in the Bible were from pagan rituals that were desecrating the temples, weren't in a monogamous relationship, or were ignoring their own sexualities for the sole purpose of pursing pleasure. I've also heard that Jesus never one mentioned homosexuality. However, I've also heard that all those arguments are wishful thinking, twisting of scripture, and simply trying to justify something that is undeniably a sin.
Truthfully, I don't know what to think or say, honestly the best answer I've managed to come up with is that I truthfully don't know for sure if homosexual activity is sinful or not. What I do know for sure however, is that if it is a sin it is no worse than any other sexual sin. If God is willing to forgive someone for cheating on a spouse, divorcing and remarrying, masturbation, and all these other sexual sins I see no reason why a homosexual couldn't be forgiven and inherit Heaven just as much as any other straight person. To be fair, knowing for sure how salvation works could help with this question.
TL;DR: How have any of the LGBT Christians here reconcile their sexuality with their faith and scripture? Or allies, how have you defended your support with your faith and scripture? This is something that matters greatly to me with how many friends I have that are LGBT.
Another thing I can say for certain is that I know that Jesus loves the forsaken and downtrodden, and I think that the persecution LGBT members have gone through throughout history but that's where I lead into my next topic.

DOWNTRODDEN UNBELIEVERS
I remember the story that Jesus told where there was a man who was wealthy who had put up a gate or a wall around his home and that a poor man named Lazarus sat outside that gate and wanted nothing more than the crumbs that fell from the rich man's table and was covered in sores. When they both died Lazarus went to Abraham's Bosom (I think this was kinda like a pre-Heaven Heaven) where the other man has sent to Hades or Hell to be tortured. He begs for just a drop of water from Lazarus's finger and he gets told no, that he got good things in his life and now he is in torment while Lazarus received bad things and now is comforted. Aside from knowing that someone is burning in Hell, which is still a big terrifying thing (but I suppose as a parable it may not be an actual event that happened...but what if that makes me a heretic, man spirals are fun huh), there is a comfort in the idea that people who suffer in this life will be comforted and given peace and rest in the next....or will they?
Many say that since Lazarus was a follower and believer that was how he made it into Heaven, so what does that mean for a nonbeliever who suffers their whole life and dies? Will they simply die and then continue to suffer and burn? This has always bothered me when I hear about things like people dying tragically. Like when you hear about people being caught in burning buildings, I always wondered if they were believers or not, would they just go from one painful fire to the next? Or what about someone who was mistreated by Christians and led to them being resentful of that faith? Imagine something like a slave owner telling those people that God meant for them to be subservient, how many slaves probably cursed the Christian religion in their hearts over the horrors and mistreatment they and their friends and family received? Or other massacres and persecution that happened to other religions: the holocaust, the crusades, and so many others. Are so many people who believe they are dying while holding on to their one true faith, are they in for a rude awakening to a burning lake?
TL;DR: Will the meek and downtrodden still inherit Heaven and the Earth if they aren't believers?

AION AND CHRISTIAN UNIVERSALISM
This is the one potential hope that I have come across while trying to do research into this topic. Apparently there is some question about how the term aion and how it was translated. Often times this was translated into "eternal" but apparently this may not be the case. Apparently this term mean "of an age" or for a specific period of time. This is the belief that many who ascribe to the Christian Universalist sect. While there are some variations that I have heard, the basic idea is that while there is a Hell it isn't a place of eternal torment just because, it is a place of corrective punishment. Which means that it isn't an everlasting place of pain and torture, it is where those who didn't accept Jesus's sacrifice or obeyed his teachings in this life will pay the price for their sins but afterward will be welcomed into Heaven.
The idea that everyone will get to Heaven is something that I've always had a hope for but I had never heard of any sort of scriptural evidence for, at least until recently. Apparently there's some that say that many of the earliest Christians were universalists, and that there are many verses and stories in the Bible that contradict an idea of eternal separation/punishment from God.
One of the first examples I heard was the story of Jonah, were Jonah spent the entire story to try to avoid going to Nineveh because he knew that God would show them mercy. That story really stuck with me, I only remember really being taught about the whale part of the Jonah story. However, the whole part about him finally getting to Nineveh, basically half-assing a sermon to them because he really wanted them to be destroyed, only for them to repent and be spared anyway? It feels like that part of the story got skipped over a lot in Sunday School. Especially when you realize how often in the story so many other people that aren't Christians are actually more receptive and obedient to God than Jonah, the person he's speaking to directly and that is supposed to be his follower. The pagans on the ship were calling out to God in the storm and the Ninevites wound up begging for God's forgiveness. The last part where God questions Jonah also sticks out, would we as Christians be angry or upset that those who didn't accept Christ in this life or didn't follow so many of the rules we felt we had to abide by make it into Heaven? Or would we welcome them with open arms and praise God for his bountiful mercy? I know which I would want to pick.
There's also the story of the prodigal son that many love, but many also limit this forgiveness to this life. Yes God will accept you back no matter how disobedient you were, but only while you're alive! Die before making that realization? Well congrats pal, you're toast. What if that's not the case however and that there will be so many more chances for love and forgiveness than we even realize? I understand where many come from with their opposition to this notion, but I also know that God is all powerful and is capable off more than we could possibly know. Is it blasphemy or heresy to have such a hope? God isn't opposed to changing his mind, God changed his mind after Moses pleaded for him to not destroy the nation after they found the Israelites worshiping the golden calf and again changed his mind about destroying Nineveh.
Christian Universalism is something that I hope is true, I beg and plead and hope it to be so. God's will is that all will be saved and how often in our prayers do we say that "not our will but Yours be done?" I want to believe in it so bad, I suppose you could classify me as a hopeful Christian Universalist. There are still some things that I question and wonder, the whole "it would be better if those that cause you to stumble were never born" verse still gets to me and I constantly worry if my questions and worry have caused someone to stumble in their faith and I have a fate worse than death waiting for me. Sincerely I don't know...but all I really have is hope anymore.
TL;DR: Has anyone else ever heard the argument about aion being a mistranslation? Is anyone here a Christian Universalist who could give me some more reassurance about their beliefs?
If anyone has any questions about this topic above I've gotten many of my information from this channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCjlJI2QlzpEpE_fnoCk0rKQ

SCRUPULOSITY
Maybe this is the simple answer to all of my problems. From what I could find, scrupulosity is when you have an obsessive fear and worry that what you are doing or thinking is sinful and angering God. I never really realized it but I feel like I've had at least an aspect of this for years. So often I can remember praying for God to forgive me for everything, even the stuff I didn't realize I had done or could remember. I asked that God would forgive my family and friends even if they didn't ask for it. I remember upping it to ask that God to forgive the entire world and then add on astronauts because I didn't want them left out. To this day, especially with this whole spell going on, I feel like all I could do was pray for forgiveness, over an over for everyone. I remember hearing that Kobe Bryant had died and immediately asked God to forgive him just in case he had some unrepented sin, then make sure to throw myself in there for good measure. However I had trouble doing things like eating because I was just lying in bed and praying all day and all night until I would drop for exhaustion. I would wake up in the middle of the night and then immediately start praying again and apologize for falling asleep during my prayer. I was a substitute teacher, while the schools were still open anyways, and in my mind I was just constantly praying that God would have mercy on the kids making crude jokes that only served to remind myself of my crazier school days and worry if I was bound for Hell then too, which only made me pray harder. I went to go see the Mr. Rogers movie in theaters and remember crying during so often that it didn't really matter how nice Mr. Rogers was to all these people if they were just going to Hell anyway. I was an absolute train wreck.
I had managed to get my anxiousness under control for awhile but unfortunately it flared back up again just today. Perhaps the corona virus panic isn't helping, and I just took a shot yesterday after waiting on my vial to be refilled after about two weeks, so maybe this medicine is just making me more paranoid? I sincerely don't know, but it's the fact that I don't know that drives me crazy. Do I actually have some spiritual OCD? Or is God trying to tell me something? Is the Devil trying to simply make me fearful and doubtful, or is this just my mind or wicked human heart? I don't want to say that God trying to get me to find answers in a mental illness, but I also don't want to say that my paranoid delusions and anxieties are from God when they are not.
TL;DR: Has anyone ever felt like I am right now? Had these same thoughts or worries? Should I go to a therapist? Any guidance or answers are very welcome.
If any of you have actually gone through and read all of my ramblings, firstly I AM SO SORRY. This is actually me trying to keep things short, honestly I could ramble so much more but these were the things I felt like I needed to focus on the most. Secondly, I want to say thank you, even if you read just to tell me I need to take a chill pill, knowing someone was actually willing to put in that time is so meaningful. Thank you all, and God bless.
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2020.02.20 12:08 olive_allen Electronic Grade Sulfuric Acid Market Growth And Key Players Insights: BASF, Chemtrade Logistics, Ineos Enterprises

Electronic Grade Sulfuric Acid Market Growth And Key Players Insights: BASF, Chemtrade Logistics, Ineos Enterprises
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2020.02.05 16:56 jw_mentions /r/DebateReligion - "Jesus can't be both an eternal being and a created one. It has the be one or the other"

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Submission Jesus can't be both an eternal being and a created one. It has the be one or the other
Comments Jesus can't be both an eternal being and a created one. It has the be one or the other
Author TastySewp
Subreddit /DebateReligion
Posted On Tue Feb 04 12:45:14 UTC 2020
Score 53 as of Thu Feb 06 12:47:23 UTC 2020
Total Comments 219

Post Body:

Jesus is said to be co-eternal with God the Father. The only begotten Son. He was never created but always existing, eternal. Also claimed is that he was not born of a woman but immaculately conceived. How can Jesus be eternal yet claim to be "the root and offspring of David?"
Eternal means uncreated and always having existed and always existing. Humans are defined biblically as "creatures" because we were created and had a defintive starting point hence not eternal. (As a side note: God also said "Before I formed you in the womb I knew[a] you, before you were born I set you apart; I appointed you as a prophet to the nations.")
But if God can say someone was known before being created, doesn't that imply some kind of eternality as well?
Back to main point. Jesus claimed to be the root and offspring of David. When erudite people use words appropriately, the word offspring means descendent, in other words genetic blood relative. Jesus can only claim to be the offspring of the Davidic lineage if he genetically descended from him. This is worlds apart from the claim Jesus was not born of a woman, immaculately conceived. How does a pre-existing and eternal being become born, created or conceived? The debate is here: Jesus can't be both an eternal being and a created one. It has the be one or the other.

Related Comments (2):

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Author AyyStation
Posted On Wed Feb 05 15:54:27 UTC 2020
Score 2 as of Thu Feb 06 12:47:23 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 0
Body link
There were many before who claimed the same, from ancient Arians, Nestorians, Adoptionist to modern ones like Jehovas witnesses, who claim thst Jesus was either born a regular man or was the first creature.
Trinitarians belive that Jesus is ontologicaly speaking equal to God and thus not created. God exists outside of time and space, being omniscient for him the past, future, present and every possible form of those 3 times are the same and at the same time. It was just decided that he would incorporate himself in a specific part of time and be born and live a life of a human.
So Jesus/God existed before Mary and by "coming down from the heavens" became a man and the son of Joseph and Mary he is also in Davids lineage. You could now ask further about the nature of Jesus, was the fully human and fully God at the same time, a mixture of those, one nature or two natures etc, but regardless he is eternal as outside of time and he existed in time
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Author ursisterstoy
Posted On Tue Feb 04 21:38:20 UTC 2020
Score 3 as of Thu Feb 06 12:47:23 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 3
Body link
I’m one of those weird people who doubts that the myths about Jesus necessitate an actual human behind them. We don’t need an actual person behind Hercules, Zalmoxis, Dionysus, Adam, Abraham, David, Solomon, Elijah, King Arthur, John Frum, Robin Hood, Moses, Osiris, Harry Potter, Luke Skywalker or several other people to have elaborate myths about them. There may have been someone completely different in each case like a local duke in the case of Arthur but we wouldn’t think he actually pulled a sword out of a stone and conquered all of England before giving his sword to the Lady in the Lake.
With that said, the basic Christian understanding is that Jesus is the eternal companion to God that existed since before the creation of the universe. The type of creation isn’t important because Young Earth creationism or deism can both be described as supernatural creation.
The eternal Jesus, part of the God trinity, was transferred to Mary in human zygote/embryo form and developed into a baby who grew up working as a carpenter with Joseph before he set off on a ministry in his thirties that lasted between one and four years before he was executed.
He’s supposed to be free of sin and the ultimate blood sacrifice who lived out a human lifetime. Sure he comes back to life so his death was more like an inconvenient weekend but his death and resurrection provides a path to heaven for those who but believe. Some will include good works or confession to the priest or a veneration of Mary but essentially there isn’t much of a conflict.
He’s an eternal spirit who was born into a human body before dying in human form, being brought back to life (with or without a physical body), visits with his disciples, has his holes fingered by doubting Thomas, and then he ascends into heaven.
Evangelical denominations also insist that the 1900+ year old failed prophecy about an apocalypse during the lifetime of those disciples or lifetime of the audience of Paul or around the time Nero was supposed to come back as the antichrist is actually supposed to refer to a future event for which nobody knows the day or hour for which it will begin.
There’s some more nuance in this area as some denominations and people throughout history have set different dates for the apocalypse which all failed, though Jehovah Witnesses believe he already came back and this time right now is the end times where a select number of people are supposed to be taken up to heaven any day now.
Mormons have a different theology where there may be an infinite chain of Gods and the Christian God is just the most recent and the God of this universe or this planet and upon death select men can go on to become gods of their own.
TLDR of Christian Jesus explanation- eternal spirit Jesus was inserted into virgin born Jesus body to experience being human, to die as a human, to be the everlasting blood sacrifice, and to provide a path to heaven as eternal spirit Jesus moving forward. He is also supposed to come back in most denominations if he didn’t already and that doesn’t stop him from existing forever as spirit Jesus who came in the form of a historical man over 2000 years ago.
The explanation from scholars and/or a from how this this related to theology development is that Christian Jesus is completely fictional based on a combination of ideas. He’s supposed to an eternal spirit, a child born to a virgin (because of a misinterpretation of “maiden” in Isaiah), he’s supposed to be the Son of Man described in the book of Enoch (to the degree it was composed up to that time), the Teacher of Righteousness from the Dead Sea Scroll, a demigod like all of those pagan demigods he’s often compared to, a messiah coming out of Egypt from the tribe of Bethlehem and a Nazarene.
Many of these concepts were misunderstood or misinterpreted by the people making these myths. The disagreement comes when considering the ordinary man upon who these myths were piled upon with a dozen different versions of Jesus in the historicist camp, and a handful of them in the mythicist camp.
Admittedly, there are some bonkers ideas about the actual original Jesus in each case so the minimal mythicism and minimal historicism positions are more likely with the historicist position being currently the most popular among scholarship, where they imagine a Jesus who was remembered through rumors before elaborate myths were recorded about him where they assume that the myths are at least partially built upon a more ordinary human depicted in documents that have never been found.
The mythicist position differs in this by looking at the development of the myths and comparing what we do have to examples like those that I provided above and an agnostic position in between who can’t say one way or the other when it comes to human Jesus but in all of these cases it is established that at least the majority, of not all, of the narrative upon which Christianity (and Islam) are based is just a myth or theological propaganda.
submitted by jw_mentions to jw_mentions [link] [comments]


2020.01.20 02:50 SpokaneMormon Moses Lake, WA Temple

Anyone else here from Washington State and excited about the new Moses Lake Temple?
I know I am. I've only been a member of the church for almost 10 years now (August 21st will be the exact date) and I simply cannot wait to see the construction start. My work has me travel to different cities in eastern and central Washington, and ML happens to be one of those cities.
I can't wait to invite all my non-member family and friends to see the dedication and finally get to walk through the new Temple. I've never had the opportunity to go to a Temple dedication, so this is one I'm following closely.
Just wanted to share me excitement. 😄
submitted by SpokaneMormon to latterdaysaints [link] [comments]


2020.01.18 14:51 SACRED-GEOMETRY Timeline of the Long Island Serial Killer case

Edit: Time timeline is outdated. Please see https://www.gilgocase.com/timeline.html
This is a work-in-progress timeline of the LISK case.
Cases with an asterisk (*) next to them are not officially linked to the Long Island Serial Killer.
You may find it helpful to use a map while reading:
February 1, 1982*
  • Tina Foglia (19) was last seen in the early morning hours of February 1, 1982 at a rock music venue in West Islip. Her dismembered body was discovered by Department of Transportation workers on February 3 along the shoulder of the Southern State Parkway. Her remains were placed in three separate plastic garbage bags, and were found a few miles north of the Robert Moses Causeway, which leads to Gilgo Beach and Oak Beach. A diamond ring that Foglia was known to wear was missing.
  • The DNA of an unknown male was found on the garbage bags. Police have not ruled out the possibility that Tina Foglia was an early victim of the Long Island Serial Killer.1
  • Tina Foglia:
April 20, 1996
  • Two female legs, wrapped in a plastic bag, are discovered on Fire Island west of Davis Park Beach.
  • The victim's skull would later be found on April 11, 2011 west of Tobay Beach in Nassau County and linked by DNA.1, 2
  • "Jane Doe No. 7 / Fire Island Jane Doe":
June 28, 1997
  • The dismembered torso of an unidentified young African-American female was found in Hempstead Lake State Park, New York. The torso was found in a green plastic container which was dumped next to a road. Both arms, head, and legs below the knee were severed and have not been located. The victim had a tattoo of a heart-shaped peach with a bite out of it on her left breast.1
  • On April 11, 2011, police in Nassau County discovered dismembered skeletal human remains inside a plastic bag near Jones Beach State Park, nicknamed "Jane Doe No. 3". DNA analysis identified this victim as the mother of "Baby Doe."2 She was found wearing gold jewelry similar to that of "Baby Doe."3
  • In December 2016, Peaches and Jane Doe No. 3 were positively identified as being the same person.4
  • "Jane Doe No. 3 / Peaches":
November 19, 2000
  • The body of a woman is discovered by hikers in the Long Island Pine Barrens in Manorville, off of Halsey Manor Road. She was a white woman in her 30s with brown hair. She had been dead for several weeks before her nude, headless body was found, cut into pieces and stuffed in plastic bags.
  • April 4, 2011, her head, hands and right foot were found in a plastic bag in the vicinity of Ocean Parkway on Gilgo Beach.1
  • On May 22, 2020 police in Long Island announced they had positively identified the “Manorville Jane Doe” and will be releasing her identity.2
  • "Jane Doe No. 6 / Manorville Jane Doe":
November 23, 2000*
  • Hunters found the body of a white or Hispanic man in his 20s with black hair in the woods off the eastbound side of the Long Island Expressway (LIE) near Exit 68 in North Shirley. He was wearing light blue-and-white striped GAP boxer shorts. He had "multiple traumatic injuries including crushed larynx" implying he was strangled.
July 26, 2003
  • A naked and dismembered torso, missing its head and hands, was discovered 45 miles east of Gilgo Beach in Manorville, New York.1 The victim was identified as Jessica Taylor (20), an escort from Washington, D.C. She was last seen days earlier at the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Manhattan.2 Taylor's torso was found atop a pile of scrap wood at the end of a paved access road off of Halsey Manor Road, just north of where it crosses the LIE. Plastic sheeting was found underneath the torso, and a tattoo on her body had been mutilated with a sharp instrument. Medical examiners determined the tattoo was a red heart with an angel wing that said, ‘‘Remy’s angel”.
  • On May 9, 2011, it was reported that the remains of a skull, a pair of hands, and a forearm found on March 29 at Gilgo were matched to Jessica Taylor.3
November 10, 2003*
  • A body was found south of the Long Island Expressway in Manorville. Hunters discovered the body in a wooded area several hundred yards from the expressway. Autopsy results were inconclusive (per the newspaper articles linked blow). The victim was Caucasian, 35 to 50 years old, about 5-foot-6 and had died up to four months earlier.1, 2
  • There is speculation that the body could have been dumped at the same time as Jessica Taylor's body.
  • There is not much information about this, aside from a few newspaper articles. Unable to find pages for this victim at DoeNetwork and NamUs. There was an IdentifyUs page that no longer works. If you find any information please contact me.
    • Newspaper articles: 1, 2
March 3, 2007*
  • A suitcase containing the dismembered torso of an unidentified Hispanic or light-skinned African-American female washed up on a beach at Harbor Island Park, in the town of Mamaroneck. One of her dismembered legs washed up at Cold Spring Harbor on March 21, 2007, and her other leg washed up at Oyster Bay in the village of Cove Neck the following day. The victim was determined to have been stabbed to death.1
  • The victim had a tattoo of two cherries on her left breast, which was similar in appearance to the tattoo found on Peaches. Never identified, the victim is referred to as "Cherries" by investigators. "Cherries" was dismembered in a fashion similar to three other victims: Jessica Taylor, "Peaches", and "Jane Doe No. 6", meaning she may be linked to the other official victims.
  • "Cherries":
July 9, 2007
  • Maureen Brainard-Barnes (25) is last seen in her room at the Super 8 Hotel in midtown Manhattan. Her last known call that night is to her sister, Missy, during which she says she is at Penn Station.
  • Shortly after her disappearance, a friend of Maureen's, Sara Karnes, received a call from a man on an unfamiliar number. The man claimed that he had just seen Maureen and that she was alive and staying at a “whorehouse in Queens”. He refused to identify himself and could not tell Karnes the location of the house. He told Karnes he would call back and give her the address, but he never called again. Karnes said that the man had no discernible New York or Boston accent.1
  • Her body was found in December 2010 located very close to three other victims.2, 3
June 27, 2008*
  • The dismembered remains of Tanya Rush (39) were found in Bellmore on a grassy shoulder of the Southern State Parkway, crammed into a small dark suitcase.1
    • Tanya Rush Websleuths threads: 1, 2
July 12, 2009
  • Melissa Barthelemy (24) was last seen outside her apartment on Underhill Avenue in the Bronx. At some point, the security camera of her local bank recorded her depositing $1,000 into her account, believed to be money she'd received from a date she’d had earlier that night. She withdrew $100 before heading out the door. Her boyfriend/pimp, John "Blaze" Terry, would later say that he knew Melissa had lined up another $1,000 date the next night, somewhere on Long Island. She went by the working name "Chloe."1
  • Shortly afterwards, her sister, Amanda, received 6-7 phone calls from a man using Melissa's cell phone and claiming to be her killer.2. The first calls were on July 16, July 19, and July 23 and the final call was on August 26. The calls were placed from crowded locations in New York City, including Madison Square Garden and Times Square. In one instance, police determined that Barthelemy’s phone had been turned on near Massapequa, Long Island, and that someone had gained access to her voice mail.3
  • Her body was discovered December 11, 2010 beside Ocean Parkway near Gilgo Beach.4
May 1, 2010*
  • Shannan Maria Gilbert (23) was a New Jersey woman who may have been a victim of the Long Island serial killer. Gilbert had been working as an escort. She left for a client's house (Brewer) in Oak Beach after midnight on May 1, 2010. At 4:51 in the morning, 911 dispatchers received a panicked phone call from Gilbert who can be heard saying that there was someone "after her" and that "they" were trying to kill her. She was last seen a short time later banging on the front door of a nearby Oak Beach residence and screaming for help before running off into the night. Neighbors Gus Coletti and Barbara Brennan are among the last to see her.1
  • On December 13, 2011, Gilbert's remains are found in a marsh, half a mile from where she was last seen.2 In May 2012, the Suffolk County medical examiners ruled that Gilbert accidentally drowned after entering the marsh. They believe that she was in a drug induced panic, and have concluded that her cause of death was "undetermined." Her family believes she was murdered.3
May 3, 2010*
  • Two days after Shannan Gilbert's disappearance, Dr. Peter Hackett, an Oak Beach resident and neighbor of Brewer, called Gilbert's mother, Mari Gilbert. He claimed he was taking care of Gilbert, and that he "ran a home for wayward girls." Three days later, he called the mother again, denying that he had any contact with her daughter.
    • Investigators later confirmed through phone records that Hackett called Mari twice following the disappearance. Telephone records show that calls were placed from Dr. Hackett's cellphone on May 3, 2010 and from his home phone on May 6 to Mari Gilbert's cellphone, and on the latter date from Dr. Hackett's home phone to Shannan's sister Sheree's cellphone.
  • The marshy area where Gilbert's remains were found was also noted as near Hackett's backyard. Gilbert's family filed a wrongful death suit against Hackett in November 2012, claiming that he took Gilbert into his home that morning and administered drugs to her, facilitating her death. Later police revealed that Hackett had a history of inserting himself into, or exaggerating his role in, certain major events. Police also noted that Hackett's wife and two children were home on the night of Gilbert's disappearance. Police later ruled out Hackett as a suspect in the deaths of Gilbert and the LISK victims.1
    • Relevant Reddit threads: 1, 2
June 6, 2010
  • Megan Waterman (22) was last seen on June 6, 2010 heading toward a nearby convenience store on foot after leaving the Hauppauge Holiday Inn Express.
  • Her body is discovered on December 13, 2010, along with the bodies of Maureen Brainard-Barnes and Amber Lynn Costello. 1
  • On April 16, 2011, police seized the laptop of Waterman's boyfriend/pimp, Akeem Cruz, to search for records of clients that could lead them to the killer.2 In April, 2012, Cruz pled guilty to federal charges of transporting women across state lines to meet clients for sex.3 In 2013 he was sentenced to three years in prison.4
September 2, 2010
  • Amber Lynn Costello (27) leaves her home in North Babylon to meet a client, never to be seen alive again.
  • Her body is discovered on December 13, 2010, along with the bodies of Maureen Brainard-Barnes and Megan Waterman. 1
December 11, 2010
  • A Suffolk County Police canine unit investigating a missing persons case regarding Shannan Gilbert discover human skeletal remains at Gilgo Beach, three miles west of Robert Moses bridge, at 2:45 p.m. Police discover a full skeleton, wrapped in burlap, in the bramble beside Ocean Parkway near Gilgo Beach, three miles from Oak Beach.1 The remains are later identified as Melissa Barthelemy (24).
December 13, 2010
  • Near where Melissa Barthelemy (24) was found, police find three more sets of remains, also skeletons wrapped in burlap, later identified as Megan Waterman (22), Maureen Brainard-Barnes (25), and Amber Lynn Costello (27). The bodies are found in the same location, within 500 feet of each of other.1
December 15, 2010
  • The FBI offers up its forensic and investigative services in the case. Police seize a white SUV from the client's Oak Beach residence as part of the investigation.1
December 16, 2010
  • Suffolk County Medical Examiner reports the remains are all female victims and that Gilbert is not one of the four female bodies discovered. The ME's office holds a press event to explain forensic investigation approach.
December 17, 2010
  • Police hold a press conference to provide an update of the investigation, stating they had completed a comprehensive search of the beach area in both Nassau and Suffolk along Ocean Parkway.
January 19, 2011
  • Police identify one victim as Megan Waterman (22), a woman from Maine reported missing in June 2010 from Hauppauge, NY. Remaining three victim identities still unknown.
January 24-25?, 2011
  • Police reveal identities of three remaining victims, and Suffolk County District Attorney Thomas Spota declares the victims are the work of a serial killer.1 He also reveals all four worked as escorts using Craigslist ads. Police say the women were killed at different times, possibly a year apart in one case, and disposed of at different times.
  • Suffolk Police Commissioner Richard Dormer says beach search would resume once weather conditions improve in spring.
March 29, 2011
  • Police search teams return to Gilgo Beach to resume search for Shannan Gilbert.
March 30 2011
  • Police confirm discovery of more possible human remains at a site east of the original search location. Police find a skull, hands, and forearm, later verified to be additional remains of Jessica Taylor, the woman whose torso was found in Manorville in 2003. Other human remains are also found along Ocean Parkway, three quarters of a mile east of where the first four bodies were discovered.
March 31, 2011
  • Police rule out that the fifth set of remains discovered a mile east of the first four sets are not those of Shannan Gilbert (24), the missing New Jersey woman.
April 4, 2011
  • Police find three more sets of human remains along Ocean Parkway between Oak Beach and Gilgo Beach, bringing the body count to eight. An unidentified Asian male dressed in women’s clothing; the skull, hands, and foot of the first Manorville Jane Doe (discovered in 2000); and an unidentified girl between sixteen and thirty-two months old described as "Baby Doe".
  • Police later released a sketch of the Asian male. The cause of death was blunt-force trauma.1 He likely been working as an escort and was wearing women's clothing at the time of his death. He was between 17 and 23 years of age, 5' 6" in height, and missing four teeth. He had been dead for between 5 and 10 years. He had some kind of musculoskeletal disorder which would have affected his gait.2
  • DNA analysis identified Baby Doe to be the child of "Jane Doe No. 3 / Peaches."3
April 5, 2011
  • Police say Shannan Gilbert (24), the woman last seen in Oak Beach on May 1, 2010 is not one of the three bodies discovered on April 4.
April 11, 2011
  • Police uncover two more sets of remains in two separate locations.
  • The first discovery: female bones and jewelry found near the Jones Beach water tower. Described as "Jane Doe No. 3". DNA testing determines this is the same victim as Peaches and that she is the mother of the child (Baby Doe) found the week prior along Ocean Parkway.
  • The second: a skull discovered west of Tobay Beach in Nassau County is later determined to be that of the Jane Doe No. 7 remains found in 1996 on Fire Island.1, 2
May 9, 2011
  • In light of the six latest discoveries, Spota revises his theory of the case, announcing “There is no evidence that all of these remains are the work of a single killer.”
May 17, 2011
  • The New York Post reported that Long Island police were revisiting other similar unsolved murders of prostitutes. Named in the article was Tanya Rush (39), a mother of three from Brooklyn whose dismembered body was found on June 27, 2008.
November 29, 2011
  • Commissioner Dormer revises the case theory yet again, announcing he believes a single serial killer is to blame for all ten victims, and that Shannan’s disappearance is a separate case, perhaps not even a murder.
December 13, 2011
  • Shannan Gilbert’s remains are found on the far side of the Oak Beach marsh, a quarter mile from where her belongings were found five days earlier. Before an autopsy is performed, Commissioner Dormer refers to her death as an accident.
December 14, 2011*
  • James Bisset (48), a wealthy Long Island businessman, killed himself in his car in a parking lot.1
  • Bissett co-owned the Long Island Aquarium in Riverhead and the nearby Hyatt Hotel. He also owned Bissett Nursery in Holtsville, a large wholesale company, with his family and Treasure Cove Resort Marina in Riverhead.
December 15, 2011
  • District Attorney Spota decries Commissioner Dormer’s single-killer theory. The same day, County Executive—elect Steve Bellone names Dormer’s replacement as police commissioner, effective January 1.
January 3, 2012
  • Suffolk County Interim Commissioner Edward Webber announces “There’s no fixed theories at the moment” about the Gilbert case or any of the Ocean Parkway cases.
February 17, 2012*
  • Skeletal remains were discovered in a wooded area off North Street, west of Wading River Road. The body was wrapped in bed sheets, a plastic bag, and duct tape. Police determined the victim was a male and estimate the body had been there at least five years.1, 2
March 21, 2012*
  • A female body was discovered in a heavily wooded area of Manorville Hills County Park about 100 yards off the nearest dirt road. The body had been in a wooded area for "at least a week." Police stated the case was being treated as a homicide, but declined to describe any obvious wounds found on the body.1, 2
May 1, 2012
  • Shannan’s autopsy results are shared with her family. The cause of death is “undetermined.”1
November 15, 2012
  • A lawsuit was filed by her mother, Mari Gilbert, against the Suffolk County Police Department in the hopes of getting more answers about what happened to her daughter the night she went missing.1
December 12, 2012*
  • Christopher Loeb stole a bag from Suffolk Chief of Police James Burke’s SUV. While Loeb was in police custody he was threatened and assaulted by Burke, who allegedly coerced police who witnessed the incident to lie to federal investigators about what they saw. The bag contained Burke’s gun belt, ammunition, sex toys, pornography, and other items.1 According to Loeb the pornography was snuff films depicting a woman being tortured.2
  • James Burke pleaded guilty in February 2016 to conspiracy to commit obstruction of justice and violating the victim’s civil rights. In November 2016 he was sentenced to 46 months.3, 4
  • On January 31, 2017, Suffolk County agreed to pay $1.5 million to settle the federal lawsuit brought by Christopher Loeb.5
January 23, 2013*
  • The remains of a woman were discovered buried in a small piece of brush in a sandy area along the shore at the end of Sheep Lane in Lattingtown, near Oyster Bay. The remains are believed to be of a woman between the ages of 20 and 30, possibly Asian. She was wearing a 22-karat gold pig pendant, which may be a reference in some Asian cultures to "The Year of the Pig." There was trauma caused to her bones. Investigators believe she was buried before Hurricane Sandy in late 2012.
  • Asian Jane Doe:
March 16, 2013*
  • Natasha Jugo (31) was last seen leaving her home near Alley Pond Park, Queens. Her car was found along Ocean Parkway and some of her clothes and belongings were found in the sand near Gilgo Beach the following day. Jugo was described as 5-feet, 7-inches tall, 120 pounds with brown eyes and blonde hair. She was last seen wearing a black robe, pink pajamas, gray hooded sweatshirt, black coat, and black boots. Jugo's family said that she had "a history of problems in which she thought people were following her". Police are unsure whether the case is connected to the LISK victims."1, 2
June 24, 2013*
  • Natasha Jugo's body was discovered washed up on Gilgo Beach.1
September 2014
  • Due to the controversy about Shannan Gilbert's death, forensic pathologist Dr. Michael Baden agreed to conduct an independent autopsy of her remains in hopes of determining a clear cause of death.1
  • Upon examination of Gilbert's remains, Baden found damage to her hyoid bone, suggesting that strangulation may have occurred. Baden also noted that her body was found face-up, which is not common for drowning victims. Despite this, her death is still officially listed by police as an accident.2
December 10, 2015
  • Suffolk County Police Commissioner Tim Sini announced that the FBI had officially joined the investigation. The day before, former Police Commissioner James Burke, who resigned in October, had been indicted for alleged police brutality and other issues. He was said to have blocked FBI involvement in the LISK cases for years.1
  • A spokesperson for the FBI confirmed their official involvement. The FBI had previously assisted in the search for victims, but was never officially part of the investigation.2
July 23, 2016
  • Shannan Gilbert’s mother, Mari Gilbert, was murdered in her home in Ellenville, New York. Later that day, her younger daughter, Sarra Elizabeth Gilbert, was arrested and charged with the stabbing death of her mother.1
December 15, 2016
  • An escort comes forward and claims that James Burke, the disgraced ex-Suffolk police chief, is linked to prostitution on Oak Beach. She gave a press conference with John Ray, the attorney for the family of Shannan Gilbert.
    • See the video here.
September 12, 2017*
  • Suffolk County prosecutor Robert Biancavilla announced that John Bittrolff, a carpenter from Manorville, Long Island, was a suspect in at least one of the LISK murders. Bittrolff was convicted in May 2017 and sentenced in September in the homicides of two escorts in 1993 and 1994. He had been linked to the 1990s murders by DNA. He is suspected in a third murder.1, 2
  • The grown daughter of Rita Tangredi, one of Bittrolff's known victims, was reported to be "best friends" with Melissa Barthelemy, one of the Gilgo Beach victims. Barthelemy's mother said that her daughter "had a lot of calls to Manorville from her phone" before her death.3, 4
January 2019
  • State Senator Phil Boyle Boyle introduced a bill in the State Senate to encourage the Commission on Forensic Science to explore use of genetic genealogy. The commission discussed the issue and that of DNA phenotyping at its June 7 meeting.1
November 15, 2019*
  • A 54-year-old Long Island man, Andrey Frey, was arrested for allegedly trying to kidnap two sex workers on separate occasions and then traffic them for his own financial gain. He was charged with multiple counts of attempted sex trafficking and attempted kidnapping.
  • In both cases, one in July 2019, the other in October 2018, the women escaped by jumping out of his moving vehicle. Handcuffs, knives, guns, rope, zip-ties and manuals on knot-tying were recovered in a search of his home and vehicle. He also has a history of violence against sex workers.1, 2, 3
  • Federal investigators were examining whether Mr. Frey had any connection to the Gilgo Beach murders.
    • Relevant reddit thread: 1
January 16, 2020
  • Suffolk County Police Commissioner Geraldine Hart released images of a belt found at the crime scene with the letters "HM" or "WH" (depending on which way the belt was looked at) embossed in the black leather. The belt was found during the initial investigation near Ocean Parkway in Gilgo Beach. Police believe the belt was handled by the perpetrator and did not belong to any of the victims.
  • Hart stated that forensic genealogy was being used to help identify other victims, but would not comment on other DNA or forensic questions.
  • A website was announced, GilgoNews.com, enabling the police to share news and receive tips regarding the investigation.
    • Watch the press conference here.
  • Attorney John Ray, who represents the family of Shannon Gilbert, also gave a press conference urging LE to release her 911 call.
    • Watch the video here.
May 6, 2020
  • A judge overturned the appeal of the Suffolk County Police Department and ordered them to release the long-sealed 911 recording of a call made by Shannan Gilbert the night she died.1
  • Shannan Gilbert estate attorney John Ray says he has heard the 911 tapes and calls them 'extremely valuable'.2
May 22, 2020
  • The Suffolk County Police Department said in a statement they had positively identified the “Manorville Jane Doe,” also referred to as “Jane Doe #6," whose remains were located in Manorville in 2000 and Gilgo Beach in 2011. They have not yet released her identity.1
May 28, 2020
  • SCPD updated their website regarding the Manorville Jane Doe. She was identified as Valerie Mack, born 07-02-76.
  • Valerie Mack was a white female described as being 5 feet tall with brown hair and hazel eyes weighing ~100 pounds. Family members last saw her in the Spring/Summer of 2000 in the area of Port Republic, New Jersey. She was 24 years old when she was last seen. Mack was never listed as a missing person.
  • Mack's last known address was in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area where she had been working as an escort. She used the name "Melissa Taylor". There is no familial relationship between her and Jessica Taylor.
  • Detectives are asking members of the public, friends, family, and associates of Valerie Mack to provide whatever information they have about her and the circumstances leading to her death.
    • Watch photos of Valerie Mack here.
    • Watch the press conference here.
submitted by SACRED-GEOMETRY to LISKiller [link] [comments]


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